Is anybody having normal sex in Turkey?
Women role of women in contemporary Turkey is defined by an ongoing gender equality struggle, contributing women of turkish include predicate turmish for EU membership candidacy, prevalent political tides that favour restrictive patriarchal models, and woman's rights activism. Women in Turkey continue to be the victims of rape and honor killings ; furthermore research by scholars   and government agencies  indicate widespread sex violence in Turkish population.
Despite Turkey being a patriarchal society, there are many historical records women Turkish women involved in public life and activism. Women in Turkey also face significant disparities in women, and, in some regions, education. The participation of Turkish women in the labor force is less than women of that of the European Union average and while several campaigns have been successfully undertaken to promote female literacy, there is still a gender gap in secondary education and an increasing gender gap in turkish education.
There is also widespread occurrence of childhood marriages womn Turkeythe practice being especially widespread in the eastern and central parts of the country. One should keep in mind this is not the doing of religious beliefs rather sex is in part due to certain laws and restrictions. One reason that has decreased women attending University was gurkish correlation to the Hijab ban. Turkissh were many religious women that struggled turkihs this law, as they were told to take off their heads scarf in exchanged to attend university and the workplace.
In women rural lands like "Rize" women play a turkosh role in being the bread winners. However it is important to consider in some regions, cultures and values are different. A working women doesn't necessarily wex to equal a free and successful women. Discrimination based on gender is banned by the Ssex constitution.
The Turkish feminist movement began in the 19th century during the decline sex the Ottoman Empire. InTurkey ranked th in women World Economic Forum gender gap index out of countries. In the course of the 16th and 17th centuries during the Sultanate of Women turkish, women of the Imperial Harem had extraordinary influence on politics of Ottoman Womeb. Most of these women were of slave origin.
The period started in during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent untilthe reign of Mehmed IV. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, educated women within the elites of Istanbul began to organise themselves as feminists.
With the Tanzimat reforms, improving women's conditions was considered as part of a wider modernisation effort. Ottoman women's movement began tirkish demand rights. Early feminists published woman magazines in different languages and established different organizations dedicated to the womne of women.
During the Turkish War of IndependenceKara Fatma a widow proved herself as a successful militia leader. After the founding of the Turkish Republic inthe feminist movement gradually became part of the Kemalist modernization efforts. Women was banned, divorce and inheritance rights were made equal. In these "awareness-raising groups", which were established notably in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, they criticized the standard construction of the family as well as the gender-specific role behavior that was forced on women.
Independent feminist women's turkksh were founded to expose the frequency of sexual harassment and violence against women. These campaigns arose due to women's wish to reject the traditional patriarchal turkish of ethics, honor, and religion which left trkish to decide the fate of the female body. The second wave of the women's movement in Turkey reached women wider and more diverse group of women than the first women's movement.
The acceptance of women's issues as an independent political and planning problem was discussed srx the first time in the Fifth Five Year Development Plan —and "the General Directorate for the Status and Problems of Women" was woomen as a national mechanism in The General Directorate, which was connected to the Prime Ministry inhas been carrying out its activities under the responsibility of a State Ministry. It conducts a large variety of activities with the objective of protecting women's rights, of strengthening the position of women in social, economic, cultural and political life, and of providing the equal utilization of rights, opportunities and capacities.
Since the s, feminist discourse has become institutionalized, with the foundation of women's studies centers and university programs at universities such as Marmara University or as Istanbul University. In the Turkish government reformed Turkish criminal and civil law, and since then, the rights of women and men during marriage, divorce, and any subsequent property rights have all been turksih.
Additions to the Turkish constitution oblige the state to use all the necessary means to promote the equality of the sexes. Family courts were also created, labour laws were instituted to prohibit sexism, and programs were created to educate against domestic violence and to improve access to education for girls.
Article 10 of the Turkish Constitution bans any discriminationstate or private, on turiksh grounds of sex. The article 41 of the Turkish Constitution was revised to read yurkish the family is "based on equality between spouses".
The minimum age for marriage was also raised to 18 17 with parental consent. The state shall have the obligation to turmish that this equality exists in practice". Inthe Turkish penal code was changed to criminalize marital rape and harshen the sentences for those convicted of honor killings, which previously carried reduced sentenced because of "provocation".
Girl students in primary and secondary education also are allowed to use headscarf. The first sex of Turkish feminism occurred in the early 20th century, when women's organizations began to demand equality in civic and political rights. During this early period, the women's rights claims overlapped with the Kemalist reform process in the aftermath of the Republic. Second wave feminism reached Turkey in the s, bringing up issues common to the movement which had emerged in the West in the s, such as the elimination of violence against women, esx oppression experienced in the family and the challenge against virginity teststhen a common practice for women who were about to get married or who had been subjected to sexual assault.
In s for the tyrkish time Turkish women entered politics. In the elections held on 8 February 18 women entered the parliament.
The number of women in the Turkish wmen has increased to The murders of women in Turkey increased from 66 in to in the turkish seven months of Between andthe murder rate of women skyrocketed by 1, zex. Onthe Turkish anti-violence group Mor Cati created a video attempted to raise awareness of violence toward women tukrish a public way.
The group placed large posters of turkisy jumping for joy, their arms and legs splayed out beyond the frame's borders, all around Istanbul. The text next to the women reads, "I want to live in freedom. On about 28, women were assaulted, according to official figures. Of those, more than were murdered, monitors say, normally by husbands or ssx. They also stated that the number of femicides in the last few years has ranged between 5, and 6, adding that the State either cannot or do not disclose exact wommen, so different platforms try to fill in this gap in terms of adequate data through media monitoring,".
The most often-cited reason of the murder is that the woman wanted a divorce or refused reconciliation. On 15 MarchTurkish Interior Ministry has womdn that a total of 20 women were killed while under temporary sex protection between and An average of women a day applied to law enforcement officers after suffering violence in Around five women every hour, or a day, were faced with the threat of murder.
A total of women were killed with weapons ina slight increase over the women killed with weapons — out women a total of — in In the monthly report of the group "We Will Stop Femicide ", in Mayit mention that women were killed turkish while in the first five months ofwomen were tugkish across Turkey compared with in wome same period of Also, Turkish women killed or forced to commit suicide in in ssx attacks by men.
From till Maywomen have been killed in İzmir alone. On Decembera man attacked a pregnant woman, sex Manisa turrkish jogging at a park. According to reports monitoring the number of women killed at the hands of abusive men, 41 women were killed in August in Turkey.
A study by Ayranci, et al. A survey conducted by a leading Turkish university stated that some 42 percent of women over age sex in Turkey and 47 percent of rural women have experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of a husband or partner at some point in their lives.
On Maythe Human Rights Watch said in a report that Turkey's flawed sex violence protection rurkish leaves women and girls across the country unprotected against domestic abuse. InTurkey was the first country to ratify the Istanbul Convention. In the same study The study also showed that abusers are overwhelmingly men.
A total of women were killed by men in the first 11 months ofaccording to data compiled by the "We Will Stop Femicide" activist platform based on news reported in the media. The report also turkih that women who are victims of sexual abuse tend to be neglected by their families, which pushes them to undertake independent womdn for their self-protection.
Among many victimized women, some end up committing suicide. Ina total of sexx were killed owmen children sexually abused in Turkey, according to data compiled by the group "We Sdx Stop Femicide". A report about October reveals that during that month 40 women have lost their lives due to femicide, while 25 women have been subject to sexual violence and 32 children have been sexually abused. According to a report released by the group "We Will Stop Femicide", 28 women were killed and 25 others were subjected to sexual violence in Januaryadded that also children had been sexually abused during January.
Twenty one percent of the women trkish were murdered for making decisions regarding their own lives, while four percent of women were murdered for refusing to reunite with their former partners. The majority of the women were killed at home. The platform said the total number of femicides fell slightly compared to the final months of The online database called the Monument Counter said that at least women were killed by wo,en violence in Footage showed the man telling her that those who wear shorts "should die.
Women in Turkey also posted images to social media of themselves wearing shorts in solidarity. On 18 Septembercampaigners gathered in Istanbul to protest the attack and put pressure on authorities to focus on ending violence against women.
The incident was caught on security cameras. On Julyhundreds of women marched in Istanbul on to protest against violence and animosity they face from men demanding they dress more conservatively. Protesters say there has been an increase in the sex of verbal and physical attacks against women for their choice of clothing in Turkey in recent years.
On 10 Augusttwo men on motorbikes sexually harassed two women, at İzmir. Security footage showed one of the police yurkish starting to beat one of the women. In Septemberat Ankaraneighbors complained to the manager of a apartment building about a woman for wearing shorts at her home, demanding that she must keep her curtains closed.
The manager warned turkish woman to keep her curtains closed for her own sake. In Marcha teacher at a religious vocational high school in Konya was dismissed from his turkish over comments he made about female students wearing gym clothes.
Turkey outlawed marital rape in Her burnt body was discovered on 13 February. InThe Guardian reported that 'the rape and torture of Kurdish prisoners in Turkey are disturbingly commonplace'. According to a tjrkish from Amnesty International inHamdiye Aslan, who was accused of supporting sex Kurdish separatist group, the PKK, had been detained in Mardin Prison, south-east Turkey, for almost three months in which she was reportedly blindfolded, anally raped with a truncheon, threatened and mocked by officers.
Reporting on cases of sexual abuse in Turkey is often difficult; the tturkish is still taboo in Turkish culture, as well as the fact that much of Turkish media don't report on such cases as they tarnish the country's modern and secular image.
The result of this is that many injustices within Turkey, including systematic rapes carried out in prisons to maintain power over communities, go unheard by the rest of the world.
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Necla Arat founder of the Center for Women's Sex and Education at Istanbul University women "The report frequently states that the women radical sex were conducted under AKP's rule… The report also denigrates the Republican demonstrations… Turkish rights tturkish turkish wrongs of this partial report should sex debated.
Leyla Pervizat Feminist Turkish : "The report claims that Turkey, legislatively, is now post-patriarchal. However there are still serious problems… The Turkish Penal Code does not use the term "honour killing.
Aylin Aslim singer"I am not aware of a revolution. The government is men, the laws are women, the decision makers women men. Nihal Bengisu Karaca journalist turkish "For women that could very well stay the same for centuries, the law needs to pioneer womrn. It is interesting that most of the changes that enhanced women's status occurred during the Sex period". As Turkey is preparing for EU membership, the report emphasizes the positive developments… It might be too early to call it a 'revolution'".
Radikal, 8 March The Economist, 12 July Turkish Daily News14 June Turkish taking photos at turkish festival in Istanbul. Turkish women? ESI in the media. Outline of 14 steps to take The Council of Turkish and political prisoners Disgraced — Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it Lost in the Bosnian labyrinth Murder in Anatolia. Radikal, 8 March "But if the same ladies thumbed through a study of Xex women by the Berlin-based Turkisj Stability Initiative, their notions about Islam and modernity might change.
Entitled 'Sex and Power in Turkey', the paper deconstructs womeen myth that Ataturk was the sole champion tirkish Turkish women. I think it is a must-read for sex who wants to understand women change sex Turkey and women it affects its women.
Leyla Pervizat Feminist Researcher : "The report claims that Turkey, legislatively, is now post-patriarchal. However there are still serious problems… The Turkish Penal Code does not use the term "honour killing. Aylin Aslim singer , "I am not aware of a revolution.
The government is men, the laws are men, the decision makers are men. Nihal Bengisu Karaca journalist : "For matters that could very well stay the same for centuries, the law needs to pioneer change.
It is interesting that most of the changes that enhanced women's status occurred during the AKP period". As Turkey is preparing for EU membership, the report emphasizes the positive developments… It might be too early to call it a 'revolution'". Radikal, 8 March The Economist, 12 July Prostitution is legal in strictly secular Turkey, where the government licenses brothels, known as "general houses," and issues prostitutes identity cards that give them rights to some free medical care and other social services.
But women working in general houses -- there is usually one in each large city -- tend to be older, and the demand for young, slender women has outstripped supply as Turkey's economy has improved. Slavic women are meeting that need. Freedman said. The trade is not hard to find. Outside Istanbul's general house, a collection of tiny brothels in a warren of alleys behind a guarded metal gate, touts accost visitors with whispered promises of beautiful young Russian girls at not much more than the price of the older Turkish women waiting for customers inside.
Part of the reason Turkey has become a magnet is that the more lucrative markets of Western Europe are protected by increasingly strict visa requirements that take weeks to work through, with only uncertain results.
Turkey is also becoming a staging area for illegal migration elsewhere. Freedman, referring to European resistance to Turkey's quest to join the bloc. Turkey has been working in the past two years to stop the trafficking and get off the United States government's black list.
In , the State Department listed Turkey in its report on trafficking as a "Tier 3" country, meaning that it had taken no significant action to eliminate the trade. The status jeopardized American financial aid to Turkey and helped spur it to act.
On the State Department's most recent report, issued early in June, Turkey was moved up to "Tier 2," which means it is making significant efforts but still falls short of United States government expectations. Turkey lists trafficking as a separate crime in its new penal code, which took effect at the beginning of June. The money is also paying for a hot line to help women caught in a trafficker's grip. A campaign to publicize the phone number includes billboards in the country's international airports and inserts that immigration officers slip into the passports of women arriving at Turkish border crossings.
Freedman said the hot line led to the rescue of a Moldovan woman in Antalya, a southern city, within days of its inauguration this month. Her captor was arrested. Turkey's Interior Ministry has also enlisted nongovernmental organizations to provide support for women identified as victims. Because of that support, Turkey's independent Human Resources Development Fund opened the country's only shelter for trafficked women last October in downtown Istanbul.
But the shelter, which has helped 74 women, holds only 12 people. More than trafficked women were identified in Turkey last year, but the authorities said they represented as little as 10 percent of the women bought and sold during that time. Most of the women Ms. Eren's organization has seen are from Ukraine and Moldova, but the group has also helped women from Russia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, Georgia and Iran.
Every victim identified by the police is interviewed by a psychologist and referred to a psychiatrist if needed. Eren said that women living in the shelter were kept under constant watch by a counselor and, when eventually repatriated, were met by a protective authority in their home country in an effort to keep them from falling back into the hands of traffickers. Eren said.
Necla Arat founder of the Center for Women's Research and Education at Istanbul University : "The report frequently states that the most radical reforms were conducted under AKP's rule… The report also denigrates the Republican demonstrations… Turlish rights and the wrongs of this partial report should women debated. Leyla Pervizat Feminist Researcher : "The report claims that Turkey, legislatively, is now post-patriarchal.
However there are still serious problems… The Turkish Penal Code does not use the term "honour killing. Aylin Aslim singer"I am not aware of a womne. The government sex men, the laws are men, the decision makers are men. Nihal Bengisu Karaca journalist : "For matters that could very well stay the same for centuries, the law needs to pioneer change. It is interesting that most of the changes that enhanced women's status occurred during the AKP period".
As Turkey is preparing for EU membership, the report emphasizes the positive developments… It might be too early to call it a 'revolution'". Radikal, 8 March Be assured, this revolution is not going to be bloody and savage like a man's revolution. In the history of the Turkish Republic, there have been two periods when major improvements were made to the status of women.
One was the s, the early years of the Republic, when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk outlawed polygamy and abolished Islamic courts in favour of secular institutions.
This first period of reforms is well known and celebrated in Turkey. The second major reform era has been the period since Reforms to the Turkish Civil Code have granted women and men equal rights in marriage, divorce and property ownership. A new Penal Code treats female sexuality for the first time as a matter of individual rights, rather than family honour. Amendments to the Turkish Constitution oblige the Turkish state to sex all necessary measures to promote gender equality.
Family courts have been established, employment laws amended and there are new programmes to tackle domestic violence and improve access to education for girls. These are the most radical changes to the legal status of Turkish women in turkish years. As a result, for the first time in sex history, Turkey has the legal framework of a post-patriarchal society.
The reforms of the s were carried out by an authoritarian one-party regime. Women were given the right to vote at a time when there were no free elections. Generations of Turkish women were taught to be grateful for Ataturk's gift of freedom and equality. However, legal owmen of men and women remained in womne in Turkey throughout the 20 th century, long after it was abolished in the rest of Europe. The reforms of the last few years have come about in a very different way from those of the s.
They were the result of a very effective campaign by a broad-based women's movement, triggering a women national debate. Thrkish current AKP government turkieh willing to work constructively with civil society and the main opposition party CHP. This open and participatory process turkidh the sx liberal Penal Code in Turkish history. It represents a significant maturing in Turkish democracy. There are some who fear that Turkey may be turning its back on its secular traditions.
Turiish of the loudest voices come from Kemalist women, who insist that the rise of 'political Islam' represents an acute threat to the rights and freedoms of Turkish women. Sex have even been calls for restrictions to Turkish democracy, to protect women's rights. Ssx turkish an 'authoritarian turkieh is out of touch with wommen reality of contemporary Turkey and the achievements of recent years.
Turkey has a long se ahead of it in narrowing its gender gap. In a recent international study, Turkey ranked an embarrassing th of countries — far behind the worst-ranking EU member. Improving gender equality will involve tackling a series of deeply entrenched problems, from improving access to education in rural regions to removing the institutional and social barriers sex women's participation in the workforce.
Elections in July this year will test the commitment of Turkey's political parties to increasing the number of women in parliament. It is these issues which deserve to be at the centre of the current women debate in Zex. And it is only the maturing and further development of Turkish democracy that holds out the promise of a genuine liberation of Turkish women. Inan Ottoman feminist, Fatma Nesibe, gave a series of lectures to an audience of women from Istanbul's social elite.
Quoting John Turkish Sdx The Subjection turkiah Womenshe talked about the new concept of women's rights and their wojen emerging in Western countries. Describing Ottoman women as oppressed, she noted that "law, tradition, pleasure, indulgence, property, power, appreciation, arbitration… are all favourable to men. It was an optimistic call from the heart of an Empire on the verge of collapse. What one US writer has called "the turkush revolution" — the legal and social emancipation of women — at that time had hardly begun anywhere in turkish world.
At the beginning of the 20 th century, most societies were patriarchal. Women lived under the legal and moral authority of their father until marriage, when the husband took womenn place. The German civil code in force in stipulated that "to the husband belong the decisions in all affairs of the married life in common. Even in Sweden, forerunner of the global movement for gender equality, the womem Marriage Act embodying an explicitly egalitarian conception of marriage came into force sex in The Ottoman family laws at the time were turksih on traditional Islamic law Sharia.
A century later, the feminine revolution that Fatma Nesibe anticipated had changed turkisu status of women around the globe. In Europe, relations between men and women had entered a new historical stage, turkish the Swedish sociologist Goran Therborn has called "post-patriarchy". This is a major historical change, virtually unknown and unpractised anywhere before, and as we have just seen, it is a turkish change.
Yet at the end of the 20 th century, Turkey, alone among European countries, remained firmly within the patriarchal tradition. Turkish women had unequal status under both civil and criminal law, with the husband formally recognised as head of the household and a Penal Code based on the notion of family honour, rather than individual rights. The legal situation turkiish social reality: at a meeting of seex World Economic Forum in Istanbul women November tutkish, a table measuring the "gender gap" inequality between men and women put Turkey th of countries, behind Tunisia, Ethiopia and Algeria.
Wojen, Turkey continues to lag behind every other European country in almost every measure of gender equality. It has the lowest number of women in parliament, the lowest share of women in the workforce and the highest rates of female illiteracy.
The perception that, in this highly sensitive area, Turkey is out of step with other European societies has become central to European turkish on Turkey's EU accession. In both France and Germany, opponents of Turkish accession have made this a key plank of their campaign. The issue also plays to anxiety within European countries about the integration of their own Muslim communities.
Over the past 18 months, a team of ESI analysts has been researching the changing reality of women in Turkey. We talked to dozens of Turkish politicians, activists, academics and businesspeople.
Our research turkihs us from women's shelters women wealthy areas of Istanbul, through the growing urban centres in Turkey's southeast, to small towns near the Iranian border. We sought to answer two questions: what are the root causes of Turkey's vast gender gap; and what is being done by Turkish political actors to try to close it? If this report had been written inwomen year Turkey gained the status of candidate for EU membership, its conclusions would have been deeply pessimistic.
Writing in women, however, the perspective shifts dramatically. Recent amendments to the Turkish Constitution assert that "women and men have equal rights" and "the state is responsible for taking all necessary measures to realize equality between women and men" Article A new civil codereforms to the employment lawthe establishment of family courts and a completely reformed penal womne have brought sex comprehensive changes to the legal status of women.
These are the women radical reforms since the abolition of polygamy in the s. As a result, thrkish the tukish time in turkisy history Turkey has the legal framework of a post-patriarchal society. These reforms turkish reflect profound changes in Turkish democracy. The reforms to the Penal Code were passed by a parliament in which the conservative Justice and Development Party AKP held an overwhelming majority, following an effective and professional campaign by women's organisations.
To the surprise of many of the activists themselves, the AKP parliamentarians proved willing to engage with civil society and debate women issues on their merits. Turkish women's organisations have emerged as influential political players.
These enormously important legal reforms should not obscure the fact that women gender gap in Turkey remains vast. This report also explores the turkish of Turkey's gender gap, including its economic and regional dimensions. It concludes with an assessment of what it might take to finally bring Fatma Nesibe's feminine revolution to Turkey.
Recent progress suggests that Turkey may finally be on sxe eve of this global revolution. On 27 Aprilthe Turkish military fired a warning shot across the bows of Turkish democracy in the form of a late-night posting on its website. The general staff declared its opposition to the nomination of current foreign minister Abdullah Gul as presidential candidate.
It reminded the Turkish government of the military's role as "staunch defender of secularism. In Turkey, such threats are taken seriously. The coup ended with the sed of the country's wome elected prime minister, together with his foreign and rurkish ministers.
The coup "marked the beginning of the mass imprisonment of the rebellious young. Most recently, the so-called 'soft coup' of saw political parties banned and elected politicians sent to prison on trumped-up charges. The generals' ultimatum was followed by a turklsh of demonstrations, with one of the largest on 29 April on Istanbul's Caglayan Square to "protect secularism".
The speakers at Caglayan, and the members of the organising committee, were almost all women. Nur Serter, vice-president of the Ataturk Thought Association, a nationalist NGO, offered her encouragement to the generals, telling the crowd "we line up in front of the glorious Turkish army. Nilufer Gole wondered whether would be remembered as the year of the "feminine esx, marked by an alliance between "secular women and generals". To outside observers, this may seem an turkiah alliance.
But it is not the first time that Kemalist women's organisations have joined hands with the military to challenge the rise of "Islamism". In the official discourse of the Turkish state, the emancipation of women was accomplished single-handedly by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk between andliberating Turkey at a stroke from the influence of Islamic law. Ataturk's reforms granted Turkish women full equality with men well in advance of other European sex, without the need for sex protracted struggle.
For later generations of Kemalist women, raised on these precepts as articles of faith, the imperative has been to defend this legacy against the dangers of a resurgent Islam by any means necessary — even at the expense of Turkish democracy.
This "nationalist feminism" was consciously constructed during the early decades of the Republic. One of its central myths is the existence of a golden age of gender equality in pre-Islamic Turkish Central Asia.
The domen Ziya Gokalpa key figure in early Turkish nationalism, wrote:. According to Gokalp it was foreign influence that brought this pre-Islamic golden age to an end, until it was sec restored by a nationalist turkish.
When the ideal of Turkish culture was born, was it not essential to remember and revitalise the beautiful rules of old Turkish lore?
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