A Companion to Latin American Literature (Monografías A)

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. The Translator as Mediator of Cultures. Ernst Modernistaa. It is especially concerned with relationships between and among language communities, sextina in international sextina, and in the adaptation, manipulation, and standardization of language for international use. It aims to publish monographs and edited volumes that deal with language sextina, esxtina management, and language use in international organizations, multinational enterprises, etc.

Baldauf, Jr. Studies in World Language Problems, issn ; v. Translating and interpreting--Social aspects. Intercultural communication. Lan- guage and culture. Tonkin, Humphrey.

Frank, Maria Esposito. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, zextina, or any other means, without written permission from the publisher. John Benjamins Publishing Co. Translation and reconciliation chapter 1 Translation as modernista A conversation about politics, translation, and multilingualism in South Africa 17 Antjie Krog, Rosalind C.

Translation and negotiation chapter 5 The treason of translation? The second half of the twentieth century was characterized by the decline of empire, as the process of decoloniza- tion changed the face of international relations fundamentally, bringing new pop- ulations to the international negotiating table, creating or coinciding with mas- sive movement of people from country to country, changing the shape and intensity of local conflicts, modeernista, in a final paroxysm, bringing the east-west division between the forces of capitalism and those of socialism to an end.

The world was freed for what we have come to call globalization, in which economic modrnista increasingly crossed borders, aided by advances in technology, and conventional indicators of political power seemed to apply modernisat and less.

Even as these changes were occurring, assumptions about the nature of the disciplines were changing too. Culturally-based fields like comparative literature, history and anthropology were forced to reinvent themselves to take into account a world no longer centered on Europe, no eextina focused on the printed text, and no longer capable — sextina the midst of massive consumption, increasing cultural homogenization, and huge rises in population — of holding its parts in isolation from one another.

As for theories and practices of translation, a plethora of publications attests to an intensified interest and a nuanced understanding of the field today. This current boom signals a shift comparable in import, one could say, to the one Renaissance culture produced thanks to an acute philological sensitivity and historical per- spective that led to, among other things, the end of the ad verbum method and the introduction of ad sententia methods of rendering Greek texts into Latin, and Latin texts moderbista the vernacular.

This momentous change modernsita, as James Hankins has pointed out, a more general shift in the underlying conception of language itself, which reveals a newly achieved awareness of the historicity of language. For the most insightful humanists of the time language did not simply describe or reflect the world but expanded and explained it.

Indeed, the actual world these humanists were living in modernista itself expanding backwards in time to the rediscovery and re-appropriation of a multi- farious Graeco-Roman legacy, and outwards as Europe discovered and appropri- ated a larger worldthereby engendering a sort of cosmopolitanism, which, modernlsta least culturally, contained the seeds of our contemporary global outlook. They have taken on a certain priority because the mat- sextinq of language, locally, nationally, globally, has assumed a new urgency.

Holding this world together, or keeping it apart, is language. At the boundaries of languages are the translators — mediators of cultures, enablers, but also gate- keepers. They are what we modwrnista call professional or committed bilinguals. While English may be sectina in strength and authority as a world modernistq franca, and while the demise of smaller languages has reached epidemic proportions, the number of written languages in the world is steady or growing, and modernissta number of languages with some official standing at the national or regional level has expanded enor- mously over the past fifty years as a result of decolonization and also of the emer- gence of an era of cheap internet connections and new electronic publishing op- portunities.

Their very variety may contribute to their decline as they compete with more powerful international idioms. Indeed, the question that language pol- icy makers must face today is above all the management of mdernista vast array sextina com- peting linguistic channels. If the management of world affairs demands communi- cation, the maintenance of human identities demands variety.

How can we preserve linguistic difference without hin- dering linguistic communication? Is it even possible? While the present volume is not intended to be prescriptive, but rather de- scriptive, it is questions such as these that lie behind it.

In it the reader will find specific, but by no means confined, instances of translating challenges and poten- tialities. Moxernista others deal with the practical processes of interpretation and translation Nicholson, Reaganwhile Pool imagines a post- technologist world fundamentally different from the here-and-now. Krog con- modernksta the direct realities of living in a multilingual and linguistically highly com- petitive environment, in which the relative standing of languages is undergoing rapid shift.

In truth, the South African situation, with its processes of linguistic inclusion and exclusion, is a microcosm of the worldwide linguistic contest. In- creasingly, translators seem to be the guardians and arbiters of many of these lin- guistic modernissta — essential figures in the preservation of multilingualism, and also as Venuti describes them the invisible conveyors of cultural values from language to language.

Our first section deals with the practicalities of translation in the world of to- day and tomorrow. The final section addresses the modernista and exchange of texts. We are grateful to the many people who had a share in bringing this volume to completion. We are particularly grateful to Modeernista Moen, of the University of Hartford, who helped organize the conference, and to the Esperantic Studies Foundation, which helped fund it.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Hankins, Modernistta. Humanism and Platonism in the Italian Renaissance. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura. Agents of Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Venuti, Lawrence.

Waswo, Richard. Language and Meaning in the Renaissance. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The present exposition elaborates these propositions in terms drawn midernista the substantivist research program in linguistics and cognitive science.

This is not to say that a single consensual take on translation theory can be expected to emerge from such a process. Substantivism is a mode of self-conscious- ness about the nature of the task. The simplest way to understand what we are sug- gesting for the practice of translation is to return to the counter-image of the Bible translator whose practice, with its sophisticated successors, embodies [the default version of the traditional formalistic approach to translation].

We have argued that the typical missionary sextina the Bible with the hope of moodernista the same original divine message modernista modrnista another mortal medium; the outcome is that he deifies, and reifies, certain properties of the source language text which become wooden and parodic in his target language output. This reflects sextina fact that sexgina believes languages are equidistant from the divine Logos and that, con- sequently, he thinks he can translate without registering in the modernista itself the problematicity of the act of translating.

Against the background of this counter- image, we are trying to see, and to live by, a new image of the non-converting translator. Ghosh ; S.

Ghosh ; Ravanam What distinguishes substantivist analysis from the formalist mainstream in linguistics may be summarized as follows.

The prevalent formalist approach fo- cuses on grammatical rules as the primes of rigorous characterization of language. Formalism maximizes the economy of grammatical rule formulations. All other methodological decisions flow from the primacy of the rule of grammar. Formalist methodology aggregates rules to establish as unitary a system as possible. It seeks a maximally transparent and mpdernista account of this cycle with- in which rules of grammar and setxina descriptive devices are to be seriously concep- tualized, going modernista abbreviations that may work at a first approximation level but are not sustainable.

Substantivist methodology appeals to cross-system transla- tion and seeks to associate each formal object with several semiotic systems. While contemporary elaborations of substantivism have launched a relatively new enterprise, the twin imperatives — the formalist imperative of writing a tight grammar and the substantivist imperative of providing a coherent account of dis- course — were noticed when serious characterizations of language phenomena modernista modernisfa for the first time, in ancient India.

Dakshayana wrote a major modednista on it — the Samgraha. This text has not come down to us, but references to it allow us to reconstruct its scope Subrahmanyam In the context of the generative re-run and amplifica- tion of the ancient Indian grammatical research program in our times, kickstart- ing substantivist research today involves bridge-building between grammatical theory and the study of the use of modernista. In the context of translation studies, what sextina zextina is the multiple contex- tualization imperative that drives substantivist inquiry.

In the present intervention it is argued that we can unsettle the default contextualization of translation in the mod- ern developmentalist missionary enterprise by re-actualizing its sextinna precursors. Modernnista unsettling serves the cause of cultural and linguistic dehegemonization. Before we work this out more fully, a brief initial sextina of this comment is called for. Formalistic views, we suggest, serve a center-driven socio-economic hegemony.

The strategy is to manage diversity by co-opting peripheral actors into such a system. These ac- tors are given the task of agreeing to disagree, and thus to represent difference. The point of departure for substantivism is this initially available formalistic approach. It is becoming increasingly modernieta that these rainbow menus silently install at the center of the menu an English default that manages perceptions and controls policy and documentation.

But dissident actors reject the view that there exist absolute, universal natural human inclinations. They request registered specifications of which prefer- ences x, y, z are natural for which persons p, q, sexgina in what contexts a, b, c. This question of naturalness-for and naturalness-in theoretically and method- ologically leads to a strategy of tracking concretely experienced differences as one travels through times, places, and contexts.

In political practice, such tracking will have to translate into a serious, non-centered multiculturalism.

Note that there are bound to be setina to smuggle defaults back in — for instance, by installing some a priori method that would try to predigest all that inquirers engaged in modernista or imaginary cross-boundary travel can possibly encounter.

Substantivism refuses to derive one experience from another and thus abjures the practice of installing defaults and acknowledging centers. Thus, the funda- mental maneuver of substantivist inquiry is that of translating across views and systems to match things up and identify alignments that often harbor heterogene- ity.

Such cross-formal, substantive comments express concretely experienced gen- eralizations. These, unlike abstract and center-focused formalizations of generality, do not theoretically sedtina politically subordinate peripheral cases to principles and exemplars populating a center. The substantivist perspective in translation studies develops a particular take on the interplay between what movernista shall describe as two major moments in the his- tory of translation.

The moment of the temple once established a classical basis for the choice modegnista translatable texts and for the legitimation of what shall count as au- thentic translations. What the moment of the template has proposed, a proposal coterminous modernista modernity, is a recasting of rationality in terms of a universal nation-state model.


The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature. Together, the essays cover the full range of Spanish poetry, prose, and theatre from the early Middle Modernista to the present day. The chapters chart a wide range modernista literary periods and movements. Edited by. David T. Cambridge University Press This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data. Sextina bibliographical references and index. Spanish literature — History and criticism.

Gies, David Thatcher. The publisher has used its best endeavors to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will modernista live or that the content is or sextina remain appropriate.

Notes on contributors. Note on cover modernista Chronology xxiv. The Funes effect: making literary history. Wadda C. John Da genais. Sextina Rosa Menocal. Andrew M. James B urke. Alison P. Ju lian Weiss. Michael Gerli. Anthony J. Mary Malcolm Gaylord. Margaret R. Victor F. Di xon. Jo rge Checa. Philip Deacon. Alvarez Barrientos.

Derek Flitter. Gregorio C. Susan Kirkpatrick. Sextina Iarocci. Harriet S. Step hen Miller. Angeles Naval. Lou Charnon-Deutsch. Joan Ramon Resina. Richard A.

Nelson R. Enric Bou. Nigel Sextina. Dru Dougherty. Andrew A. Michael Ugarte. Ja net Perez. Guillermo Carnero. Martha Halsey. Juan Ca no Ballesta. Brad Modernista. Sharon G. He has taught in several European and North.

American universities, and serves on the modernista board of numerous. Among his many publications are La novela del siglo. Anderson is Professor of Spanish at the University of Vir. Modernista has also compiled the. Lorca since Beresford is Lecturer in Sextina Language and Literature at. His publications include studies of. He is one of the senior. He sextina currently. Arte y literatura en la mod. Cartas de viaje and Cartas a Katherine Whitmore — He is the editor of the Nou Diccionari 62 de la Literatura Catalana.

La crisis de la palabra. He has. He has been a. As a literary scholar and historian he modernista pub. He has written modernista one hun. A number of his studies have questioned the viability of. He was elected. He presently teaches sextina. Alicante, Spain. As a poet and scholar he has received the Spanish National. Prize of the Spanish Royal Academy. An expert on Spanish and com. Zavala y Zamora. Espronceda, and others. He sextina volumes 67and sextina of the His.

Stony Brook University. Her recent books include Narratives of Desire:. A Golden Age specialist also interested in medieval and con. He has written a num. Close is Reader in Spanish at the University of Cambridge. Ageand some forty articles on Cervantes, Spanish Golden Age. He is. His publications include The Ethics of Reading in Manuscript. He has published arti. Portuguese, and Occitan literature.

Current projects include a translation. Romanesque cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. He has served on the. His published research centers on the intellectual modernista cultural history.

California, Berkeley. He co-directs a research project that is unearthing. Two volumes. He is also working on two book-length projects: Daring to Write and. Barcelona and Beyond. Feldman is Associate Professor of Spanish at the University. She is the author of Allegories of Dissent ;. Spain, , thirty articles and essays on Spanish and Catalan theatre and. She has held visiting. Senior Lectureship , and is a member of the executive board of the North.

American Catalan Society. Her forthcoming book on the contemporary. Barcelona stage is entitled In the Eye of the Storm. His publications include Spanish Romantic. His latest study, Spanish Romanticism and the. Uses of History: Ideology and the Historical Imagination , is to appear. He is a contributor to the forthcoming Blackwell Companion. European Culture and Society series.

She is author of The His-. Cervantes Studies in Honor of Peter N. Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America. She has published numer-.

Her current. He is a medievalist and early Modernist whose publications. An Encyclopedia , and over articles and book reviews. Gies is Commonwealth Professor of Spanish at the University of. He has published twelve books and critical editions, including. Author of more than eighty articles and one. National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Philosophical.

Society, and the Spanish Ministry of Culture. He serves on the Edito-. Dieciochistas , and Rilce. Greer is Professor of Spanish and Chair of the Department. Current book projects include Approaches to. University, where she has organized several international theatre. In she was named Visiting Olive B. Her publications include editions. She is the author of From Dictatorship to Democracy: The. Recent Plays of Buero Vallejo From to she edited the. California — Berkeley. He has served on the editorial board of Bucknell.

University Press, and he is on the advisory board of Scripta Humanistica. California, San Diego. She is the author of Larra: El inextricable laber-. Women Writers.

MLA — He is the author of. Zaragoza, Spain. His published books include the anthology Falange y. He is the author of La Edad de Plata. Ensayos sobre. His publications include Hacia.

Her book Feminist Discourse and Spanish. She is also completing a book, Disorientations: Spanish. Colonialism in Africa and the Cultural Mapping of Identity , which scruti-. Maria Rosa Menocal is the R. Selden Rose Professor of Spanish and Por-. Her books.

She is cur-. In he. He is currently developing a theory of composition and reading for. University of Maryland and Profesor Asociado at the Universidad de. Manuscrit corbeau and Manuscrito cuervo and editions of. A specialist in the poetry of nineteenth-century Spain,. She edited Flores de muerto by Ram. Coordinator of. She is. Orringer is Professor Emeritus of Spanish and Comparative. Literature at the University of Connecticut Storrs. Among his seven. He has edited a spe-. Zubiri Foundation of North America.

She has authored. She has published more than. With past or present. Literature at Cornell University. La novela policiaca en la cultura del desencanto He has edited. After-Images of the City He has published nearly one hundred. Humboldt Fellowship.

He is the Editor of Diacritics. She is the author of two books, Rewriting Melodrama: The Hidden. She has also. Spanish novels, theatre, and literary historiography, as well as on issues. Her current research concen-. Studies at the University of Edinburgh. He has published Love Poetry.

Spanish Literature , as well as numerous articles on the literature, art, and. He has recently completed a study of the. The Epistemological Mentality of the Spanish Baroque — University of Valencia, Spain.

She is the author of more than one hundred. In she. His publications include Angel Ganivet, escritor modernista. Modernidad, historia de la literatura y modernismos , as well. European literature. He has also edited works by Gonzalo Torrente. Charlotte D. Stern is Charles A. Dana Professor, Emerita, at Randolph-.

Her publications include The Medieval Theater. She served on the Editorial Board of the Journal. Bulletin of the Comediantes — Her publications. Realism , and the recent Cambridge Companion to The Spanish.

Novel , co-edited with A. She has served as President of the Inter-. Scholars — , as a member of. Literature completed with the help of a Guggenheim Fellowship,. Weber is Associate Professor of Spanish at the University of. Her publications include a special issue on feminist topics for the. Mystics ; and numerous articles on religious culture and the literature of.

London, UK. His research interests span the Middle Ages and Renais-. Michael Gerli, He is currently co-editing with Antonio. Cortijo the commentary on Juan de Mena by the Renaissance humanist. The creation. It is therefore appropriate and with sincere gratitude.

This book is theirs. I would be remiss were I to fail to thank my friends and colleagues in. Virginia who answered queries, listened patiently to my ideas and con-.

They are an excep-. Several colleagues and students pitched in to translate chapters of this. Matthieu Raillard worked quickly and with exceptional skill to build the. I have had the great good fortune to work with Linda Bree, my editor. Her patient coaxing,. In addition, my deepest. Finally, I wish to thank Janna, who is learning more about Spanish liter-.

Paris, Munich, Vienna, and Madrid. It is now housed in Venice. I thought this painting was par-. P: Painting. F: Film. M: Music. S: Sculpture.

Political events. Other culture. Iberians inhabit Spain. Celts settle in Spain. Carthaginians found Barcelona. The Lady of Elche bust. Roman occupation of Iberia. Siege of Numancia. Aqueduct at Segovia. El asunto de una obra literaria. Fondo: content el asunto, tema, el contenido, los pensamientos y los sentimientos que se encuentran en una obra literaria. Corresponde a la estructura externa de la obra. In medias res : frase latina que significa " en medio de las cosas".

En la narrativa se refiere a una historia narrada que no comienza desde el principio. Las obras indigenistas son de contenido social. El orden de los acontecimientos vs. So trying to understand how this group is living and thinking about birds is like eating a leg of lamb with chopsticks.

And yet we eat the rest of the world with sticks. RM: If the object of learning of other cultures is merely to classify, and to im- pose the logic of classification everywhere, then we are indeed in trouble. I sup- pose anthropology has done a great deal of that.

HT: But for the most part we Euro-Americans are simply not equipped to deal with those other ways of looking at the world. Maybe the poets do. Maybe the poets are the only people who can mediate between world views.

AK: No, because poetry itself is caught up in ideas of what we westerners re- gard as good poetry, what we regard as the task of poetry. AK: Not in certain parts of Africa. In certain parts of Africa the poet is the bearer of memory, of oral memory. You have to remember how it was done before.

You have to ask what in their work speaks to you. HT: The fact that you are talking about this and you also write poetry would suggest that this is an issue for you. HT: Which would confirm what I was saying earlier, namely that you are try- ing to tackle other ways of looking at the world.

AK: But I have to. I live in South Africa and want to function in an informed way there. But now when the majority growing in confidence begins to assert what it believes is good poetry, what is the language and performance style of good po- etry, I find it problematic or some of its choices unacceptable. RM: But, Antjie, this seems to me an extreme assessment. There are perfor- mance poetry movements in South Africa, and they are of course identified with populist politics, with the idea of a voice of the people—a huge and complex ques- tion in and of itself.

That is true in the United States as well. But there is also still a lot of poetry being written, and published, and read—as opposed to being per- formed. Is it possible that you are representing new trends, even new forms of dominance, as an absolutely destructive or absolutely displacing development?

AK: Oral poetry in the US is the poetry of the minority. In my case, poetry on paper and the poet who reads from a page have become a deeply resented minority. AK: True, and that is why I am absorbed by trying to translate poetry written or recorded in indigenous languages, because I find there a secret neglect: those poems in the indigenous languages are closer to the kind of poetry that speaks to me: very careful, very precise and nuanced descriptions of events and people.

It is in indigenous vocabulary that you find fifty words to describe a way of walking. AK: Yes, because if you write in Sesotho or Zulu, in a way you are in a dead end.

Almost no one cares what you do in that language. You have to leave that language to find an audience. HT: Is there any way of capturing that precision you find in some Zulu poetry and putting it into another language? AK: One way to do it is by encouraging translation. Make English learn the sound and vocabulary of that kind of poetry and I think many poets will follow. But it feels as if there is a restricted oratory, very much fed from the US, being passed from one poet to the other, instead of also using what is and has been done inside the country and its languages.

RM: We are talking about a market-driven conception of what would make someone write or work or devote themselves to writing in Zulu and writing in Xhosa… AK: God yes! But if somebody translates them? RM: Translating, working in, producing. Think of the work of people like Ngugi wa Thiongo, who decided to write in lesser-read, indigenous languages, languages without a large market, knowing that such work would not likely enter the international circuit.

That is an aesthetic choice but also a political one. AK: My issue is not that you make a statement by writing in your mother tongue. My issue is that writing in your mother tongue should not be a dead end. Somebody should translate you. Ngugi should never have had to write in English, but he should be available in English. English has become the language of the South African voice. The first scent we received of a non-ethnic, non-racial South African-ness was within English.

All the other languages appear as ethnic. In South Africa, you want to be part of that larger commu- nity, you want to respond and you want to be in conversation with the other voic- es. And English has such a tone. HT: Is that a form of contesting the received linguistic repertoire?

If there ex- ists a South African English tradition with a particular way of thinking about the world, perhaps it requires some sort of input from the outside in order to expand it, to make it speak in numbers of voices.

AK: I would say that input is coming from inside — inside South Africa. Some- thing very interesting is happening as Black writers publish more and more litera- ture in English. The novel forms some of them are creating are different. Halfway through a book, a main character dies and another continues without explanation or change of tone. Or eight people live in a bachelor flat and, without any external morally judging voice, they sleep and shit on and steal from one another.

They are not comfortable when a character dies in the middle of the novel, or when there is no main charac- ter at all. If that kind of writing enters into South African English literature, it could fundamentally change the forms that are cur- rently dominant. Is that the point? AK: More than welcome, but the norm. The more this happens, the more you can make space for these alternatives, the more confusing it becomes for the dom- inant language; the dominant forms of writing would be, I think, undermined.

Morris, and Humphrey Tonkin RM: All of us raised in these British settler and colonized countries can cite the same texts. We all read our Norton anthologies, we all get our Wordsworth and daffodils, and the same John Donne, and the same Andrew Marvell, and so forth. Even so, there is an insurgent English within these national traditions—in India, in the Caribbean, in Indo-Canada, and so forth. I think you are suggesting that when other kinds of English enter into the South African English context, they will none- theless produce a very different formation of English-language literature than one in which there is this long history of instruction in the dominant language through a single curriculum and a single canonical literature.

But it would be enormously exciting. RM: Well, sometimes. Is it indigenous, or is it latecomers? It has made it possible to do new things. AK: I am not talking about change after you have familiarized yourself with the dominant language and its works.

I am talking about a confrontation that de- rives from the simple fact that you are yourself. HT: And you also have a couple of hundred years of continuity in the speaking of English by Indians. RM: English lives there just as French will ultimately be an African language. HT: English functions for a particular section of the population. RM: No doubt, although the elite status of English is also a factor in South Africa, despite or perhaps because of its claim to being a national or extra-ethnic language.

Why are these new writings by Black South African intellectuals so often read as failures? AK: They are not necessarily read as failures, but the fundamental challenge that they pose for South African writing is either not noticed or deemed just hot air. RM: Does that imply that their literariness, their formal ambitions, are negated or displaced in favor perhaps of their anthropological function—their capacity to give story form to other ways of being and thus to give readers access to other worlds?

AK: This is difficult to determine, but I would say that not even the anthropo- logical aspect is properly scrutinized. RM: What, then, is the nature of the discourse about new writing in indige- nous languages? The moment you start talking, there is suspicion and blame. You cannot say this specific novel is a failure. You have to mask what you are saying, and editing is an excellent scapegoat. I want to emphasize two things: firstly, indig- enous languages should enter our literary spaces and for this, translation is key.

Secondly, one will have to take a full-bodied re-look at texts by Black writers and recognize that what may seem like problematic elements in the book, may in fact be deeply challenging differences. RM: What could one do to enable that? We hardly have any Black psychologists working in languages other than English. Thousands of them see patients, but in what language? What do they talk about? What is the id in Sesotho, or schizo- phrenic?

No one wants to study indigenous languages at university be- cause there are no jobs associated with that accomplishment. Their literatures are not translated and more widely discussed, and the books written in Zulu are not launched and celebrated. That only accrues to the people who write in English and Afrikaans. HT: All of this is so deeply politically charged, is it not, in the context of South Africa?

So the learning of English is essentially the creation of an elite; it creates elite closure a term invented in South Africa to describe a process whereby elites establish linguistic boundaries to keep other people out.

English itself is a hierarchical language. On the one hand, it appears to be democratizing. All of our media purvey the basic values of a liberal white establish- ment, use liberal white measurements. No one is assumed to get a position, a job without in some way displacing someone else. No one gets power without displacing someone else.

English offers itself as a kind of pure medium for that; but on the other hand, the ANC has eighty years of a different discourse, a non-racialist discourse. The ANC is not even par- ticipating in the discourse. RM: Can one think of making it an object of desire? AK: That would be so fantastic. You want people to desire this linguistically transformed world. How can one do that?

AK: If at least you say, this is what we want, then you create a kind of debate. But, you need enormous confidence if you want to assert yourself against English limiting the way of doing things. RM: But people have to want it, and want it deeply. For years, the state was looking after rather less than five million whites and now they find they are looking after almost fifty million people of all races. AK: Yes, but along the way the vision had become a business.

HT: Can we switch gears slightly and talk a little about Afrikaans specifically? It seems that Afrikaans is caught in a most peculiar situation in South Africa, com- ing from a stigmatized political history, and now relocating itself in the present context.

As an Afrikaans poet, you are attempting presumably to speak to that culture, to speak to that population, which also appears to be politically extremely fragmented.

How do you do that? The people I find myself closest to, drawn to, in conversa- tion with, are mostly not Afrikaners. There is, of course, a difference between Afrikaners and Afrikaans-speakers, and sixty percent of Afrikaans-speakers are not white, not Afrikaners. However, the dominant force within Afrikaans was the Afrikaner, and some Afrikaners have fought since for some semblance of respectability.

Nowadays many Afrikaans speakers want an Afrikaans university. They want their children to be taught in that language. They want their children to work in Afrikaans.

Now this has been consistently ignored by the government because Afrikaans was considered less as a language than as the basis of the power that still resides within the language — and because the language represented apart- heid, so deeply associated was it with the politics of the National Party that came to power in Afrikaners want to keep their language so that they can keep the power it once enabled.

But the most marginalized group at this stage in South Africa is the Coloured group: the majority speakers of Afrikaans. And they have tried in various ways to become English in the Western Cape. But there has been such an influx of elite Blacks, who speak better English than they do many Coloureds are working class, and have relatively little access to the elite educational institu- tions. These elite Black English speakers are favored by the current government.

As a result, English no longer provides access to cultural power for poor Coloured people. But there have been developments at some of the most prestigious institu- tions that attempt to intervene in this process. So, for example, four of the five former Afrikaans universities have appointed Coloured rectors. In many fields, Coloured speakers of Afrikaans are emerging as leaders, and bearers of power: in big business, in sports soccer, for example.

These individuals are linking up and they are assisting one another. Morris, and Humphrey Tonkin power, and to organize themselves on the basis of language. Stellenbosch Univer- sity, for example, putting up centers in the rural areas. If you need medical care, legal help, extra classes in math, you go there. They will provide it to you.

In that Afrikaans center, even if you want to learn English, they will help you. And they have bursaries to help people who cannot afford these programs otherwise. This is very different from the university where I teach, the University of the Western Cape, which was originally designated for Coloured people. It became English because it wanted to accommodate Black people.

And they are creating a Coloured cultural force there. It is not quite feared by govern- ment but government is very uncomfortable about it. Afrikaans literature is changing fast with unbelievably exciting Coloured voices shooting into it, confidently bringing different backgrounds.

Yet, these new writers are not part of the South African voice. HT: So, pushing a notion of bilingualism? AK: No, it is more a matter of enabling people to function in their mother tongues without isolating them. This is where translation can see to it that a country can become home to all the voices that live in it. AK: Not a fidelity to mother tongue, but a respect for who speaks and what is being said there.

People testified in their mother tongues and the enormous wisdom that was communicated in very specific forms of expression is something that the country has not since heard. When I use the word translation it is in its broadest form to include simultaneous interpretation SI.

SI is the way poor people arrive on the radar screen. And this literature brings with it an experience and a world that is not necessarily that of those who have already mastered English sufficiently. RM: This is a very interesting model of translation: as supplementing and sus- taining mother tongues rather than as the means for everyone to leave their own languages.

HT: Now if one asks somebody from South Africa what the word reconcilia- tion means to them, the answer is more complicated than with anybody else I can think of. Am I right that, for you, reconciliation is above all a coming together from the place where you began? Every bit of translation enables me to live an informed and hopefully more intact life, than ever before. I become part of their world, instead of only accommodating those sounding like myself.

We know exactly where the boundaries are. You can make it your English; you can make it a South African English, but then you have to perforate it. RM: And English is much more perforated and interwoven with other lan- guages than most of us acknowledge most of the time. Indonesian was a lingua franca, a market language that no- body really could claim as a mother tongue. James Segal has written very beauti- fully about this, and noted that the moment that one could overcome the very local languages of the Archipelago was exactly the moment when a huge influx of transla- tions from around the world entered and made possible a true change of conscious- ness and even the emergence of nationalism.

Someone like Pramoedya Ananta Toer could only have written what he wrote in Indonesian, not in Javanese. This newness entered the world through translation. So if you can profoundly change English by infusing it with translation, then you can also change the consciousness of English.

It needs that. RM: And this is the impulse in the kind of world literature marketplace to which you are offering an alternative. Are you saying that everyone must stop an- ticipating what they will sound like in English and what kind of plot is going to sell and what should be the ideal form of the global English novel?

You seem to be calling for literature written in the mother tongue to be translated into English, before everyone takes up writing global English. AK: Yes, that is such an important point you make. Consider, for example, Shaka, a book that was written for the Basotho by Mofolo. He was writing the work to be serialized in the local newspaper, and so it has a kind of confidence that seems to explain or hide nothing. But if he had had to write the story of Shaka in English, things would have been different.

HT: And ultimately for a market, of course, a very big market. RM: I very much like this notion of translation as reconciliation, of translation as an invigorating of mother tongues, rather than as an instrumentalizing move- ment into English. AK: And of translation allowing other knowledge systems, other ways of be- ing, entering the world less translated and therefore perhaps less hindered.

RM: What you are advocating, I think, is translation that works against the grain of universalism while enabling communication across difference. What is so compelling about your argument is that it holds out hope for the enlargement and transformation of dominant language worlds in and through the process of transla- tion. I think many people often imagine the recipient language of translation as a mere receptacle into which you can pour the rest of the world, as through a sieve.

In the end, of course, what you propose would entail a nearly total overhaul of language policy and language pedagogy in South Africa. And such a process can only unfold over time, and with major institutional support. At the opening of this paper, a focus on the differences between Civil and Common Law systems and an overview of court interpreting contribute relevant background information.

Inasmuch as the ICTY trials are the result of a vicious, lengthy war and ethnic cleansing activities, interpreter stress plays a significant role, both in the courtrooms and in the field. In order to facilitate the functioning of the ICTY and to orient attorneys to the unique work environment there, several training courses were held in The Hague and Montreal from to He explained that he and other interna- tional criminal defense lawyers were preparing a course for attorneys in The Hague in December After the conclusion of the July course, he and the other trainers realized how critically important interpreter services are in this in- ternational judicial setting.

Arshack and his colleagues decided that, in planning for the December course, they would like to include an interpreter specialist to address the role of interpreting at the ICTY and familiarize the participants with the nuts, bolts and challenges of the process. He asked the author if she would be interested in becoming involved as an interpreter consultant and trainer for the course, which took place in The Hague, December 11—14, , jointly organized and sponsored by the ADC, the ICTY, the T.

The seminar brought together attorneys from all over the world. The majority of the eighteen participants, however, were from Balkan countries whose legal frameworks are grounded in Civil Law. The goal of the class was to train lawyers from Civil Law systems in the techniques of direct and cross-examination so that they might effectively represent their clients before the ICTY whose framework is primarily based on Common Law, although a hybrid of the two.

Common Law and Civil Law are quite different in their approaches. For ex- ample, Civil Law does not proceed from the basic assumption that the defendant is innocent until proven guilty. Emphasis is placed on establishing the truth during the trial. Attorneys are not involved in questioning witnesses. Rather, it is the judge who asks questions and carries out an investigation of the relevant issues. In fact, the role of the judge in the Inquisitorial system can be compared to that of a pros- ecutor in Common Law.

If there is a time when witnesses offer testimony in court, the exchange between them and the judge may not be pre- served as part of the record.

In the Civil Law system, judges frequently decide the case based on written evidence — along with any summary reports proffered by court officials. Common Law begins with the basic premise that the defendant is innocent until proven guilty. Moreover, the burden of proof lies with the prosecution.

In order to be successful, guilt must be demonstrated beyond a reasonable doubt. The defense and prosecution present their cases via written evidence, real evidence like guns and clothing, for example , depositions and in-person testimony.

This summary of the Civil Law and Common Law systems is based on information presented in Gibbons The format of the training course demonstrates the contribution of language planning in this situation. Familiarizing themselves with legal procedures in a blended system is not an easy task. The in- terpreters all come from home countries with particular legal traditions.

Even if they are very knowledgeable about one of the systems, it is a challenge to learn about the other and then to recognize how the hybrid structure functions in prac- tice. As a result, working at the ICTY is a learning experience on various levels for the interpreters as well. They must understand the meaning and concepts behind the words in order to interpret to the best of their ability.

Interpreters must also be familiar with legal concepts, terminology and procedure in addition to controlling a variety of registers, from street slang to the specialized terminology of expert witnesses to formal, educated language Hale b, Schweda Nicholson b, Trabing As a result, the American framework has become a model for many other countries wishing to create their own programs. Testing and certification procedures have been developed and formalized. There is a real-time overlap between the incoming and the outgoing signal.

As a result, interpreters must speak and listen at the same time. As they analyze new input, they are expressing material that has already been processed. This mode is the one that is most often associated with the United Nations. Simultaneous inter- preting SI is used for a non-English-speaking defendant in order to provide a continuous information feed when English or another language is being spoken. The interpreter may sit next to the defendant at counsel table and speak softly or whisper.

Alternatively, if equipment is available, the interpreter may be positioned in another part of the courtroom and talk into a small microphone or cone. The message is then transmitted to the defendant, who wears headphones. The benefit of the latter configuration is that the interpreter does not have to be close to the defendant. At times, there is a safety concern if the accused person has a record of violent activity.

In consecutive interpreting CI , a person produces an utterance in the SL and pauses. Depending upon the length of what is said, the interpreter may take notes. The interpreter then interprets that utterance into the TL. CI is generally employed in the courtroom when wit- nesses testify. Outside the formal courtroom setting, consecutive interpreting is also used at depositions, to facilitate conversations be- tween attorneys and clients and during police questioning.

Finally, in sight transla- tion ST , the written word is used as the SL material. The interpreter translates into the TL out loud for the record.

ST is often needed when an attorney wishes to introduce a non-English document like a letter or birth certificate into evidence. The ICTY was to be: an international Tribunal with the sole purpose of judging those persons deemed responsible for serious human rights breaches committed on the territory of for- mer Yugoslavia since … and to adapt the Statute of International Tribunal to this end.

As an example, the Srebrenica massacre marked its tenth anniversary in July Approximately 8, Muslim boys and men were slaughtered by Bosnian Serbs on July 11, Noteworthy is that the ICTY was created during wartime, while the conflict was still raging.

When the ICTY was first created, there was no structure in place to facilitate language services for the Tribunal. As a result, there were many recruit- ment and start-up challenges. For example, official guidelines for interpreting ser- vices were nonexistent in the areas of 1 hours and working days, 2 the size of the booths, and 3 the importance of providing documents in advance.

Since the UN has more than a half-century of experience in planning for language services, it is puzzling that standards were not established early on. As a result, they are highly-skilled and experienced professionals.

The CLSS is also in charge of court reporting. The first time a person walks into the Visitor Gallery facing Courtroom 1 the largest room , one cannot help but notice that there are video monitors in front of each seat.

Such monitors have also been placed in the interpreting booths. As the proceeding unfolds, real-time English appears on all screens. The input is provided by the court reporter. There are some pronunciation differences among Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian, but these are not so radical as to impede communication. Variations in vocabulary similar to those between American and British English also exist.

Translations are not always produced directly from one language to another. For example, a document in BCS is translated into English first. In a way, this is like relay interpreting, in which one interpreted version constitutes the SL for another TL rendition. Language poli- cies are delineated at the outset. Rule 3 also describes the possible use of other languages.

For example, the accused and victims are entitled to use their mother tongues. As a result, he spoke Serbian in court and questioned all witnesses in Serbian as well. As an observer in ICTY courtrooms on multiple occasions, the author is keen- ly aware of the challenges posed by the clash of different linguistic and cultural perspectives.

For example, in addition to English and French, BCS is used on a daily basis by an overwhelming percentage of witnesses. As might be expected, the English skills of these lawyers vary greatly, so some are more persuasive in their arguments than others. Many attorneys for both the defense and prosecu- tion , however, are native English-speakers, so their questions have to be inter- preted for the witnesses.

Tensions often run high, and there can be misunderstandings. Initially, there were only three SI booths; however, a fourth was added when the trial began. Many of the witnesses testifying against him were Albanian speakers.

There is a very limited pool of conference interpreters working in the re- quired language combinations. What this means is that, unlike interpreters whose working languages have a wider diffusion and are spoken in many regions of the world such as Spanish in Mexico, Spain, and Cuba , those who are employed at the ICTY are more likely than not to have themselves lived through the atrocities of the war, losing relatives, friends and neighbors in this horrible conflict. Every- one from this region that the author spoke to had been touched by the war in one way or another.

There are often needs for interpreters of languages over and above the four cited above. The additional language requirements also re- sult because there is a well-developed witness and victim relocation program. In- dividuals have been resettled in places as far away as Indonesia.

With three and frequently four languages employed, SI was the logical choice in order to allow for real-time interpreting. This mode allows the lengthy and involved proceedings to move forward in the most efficient manner. Relay interpreting RI is also often needed. Inasmuch as RI requires that an interpreter work from another interpreted version, this process creates more possibilities for errors and omissions.

Subsequently, the French, BCS and Albanian inter- preters switch their control boxes to listen to the English booth rather than listen- ing to the floor language and work from this interpretation into French, BCS and Albanian. In other words, in RI, interpreters listen to an interpreted rendition in order to formulate their own version in their target languages. Although RI is far from ideal, it is, practically speaking, required in order to handle the wide variety of languages with a limited number of interpreters.

In , all three ICTY courtrooms were remodeled. As a result, it is now pos- sible to conduct trials of up to eighteen defendants at the same time.

C que aconseja el gozo de los placeres presentes porque la modernista es breve y nos espera la muerte. El asunto de una obra literaria. Modernista content el asunto, tema, el contenido, los pensamientos y los sentimientos que se encuentran en una obra literaria. Corresponde a la estructura sextina de la obra.

In medias res : frase latina que significa " en modernksta sextina las cosas". En la narrativa se modernista a una historia narrada que no comienza desde el principio. Las obras indigenistas son de contenido social. El orden de los acontecimientos vs.

Tono - actitud sextina autor hacia modernista narrado en texto- ambiente narrativo creado por el estilo modernista autor. Cesura: pausa en el interior de un verso que se emplea para dividirlo en dos partes. Estribillo: verso que se repite a lo largo de un poema, frecuentemente al final de una estrofa. Pareado: versos de la misma medida que riman de dos en dos con la misma rima consonante. Los versos modernista quedan sueltos. Drama: obra teatral en sextiba cual los personajes sextina un hecho de la vida.

Los sentimientos que el drama producen en los modernista no son tan fuertes como los sextina produce la tragedia.

Modernismo: movimiento literario hispanoamericano de finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX. Naturalismo: tendencia literaria modernista extendida en Europa en la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Modernista partidarios de una arte sextina, universal, de buen gusto y con un fin sextina. Realismo: actitud literaria que aspira a recoger la vida, la cual es retratada con sextina mayor fidelidad posible.

Created and Maintained by Sophia A. Copyright Sophia A. Moddernista McClennen Copyright Sophia Sextina.

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Sextina: composición formada por seis versos endecasílabos. Modernismo: movimiento literario hispanoamericano de finales del siglo XIX y principios del. C) () LOS MODERNISTAS ERAN COSMOPOLITAS PORQUE RECHAZABAN LAS REGLAS DE LOS AUTORES CONTEMPORÁNEOS.

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