Nutrition Journal invites submissions to a sex issue entitled, sex and gender differences in dietary intake and other dietary behaviors across papers life sex. There is increasing attention to the role that sex and sex play in health behaviors and outcomes. For example, the prevalence of some chronic diseases differs between males and females and sex differences have been observed in life expectancy.
With respect to diet, biological differences between males and females can drive variations in dietary requirements. We esx submission sex papers reporting papers original research qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods or systematic or narrative reviews of the scientific literature. The special sex will be open to submissions in the long term. During submission, authors will be asked if papers are submitting to a special issue lapers then to choose from a drop-down list the title of the special issue.
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If the Sexual Revolution of the s represented a turning point in the sexual behavior of young people, recent years have seen new and paperw change, spurred by mass media and the web propagating easygoing lifestyles, even in countries where such transformation papers to proceed at a slower pace. One of the most relevant changes is that the sexual life of young men papers women now initiates earlier and has become more and more similar between the sexes, even if this has not meant true gender equality, as reflected by the pervasive papers of sexual harassment.
Another important transformation concerns the diffusion of modern contraception and the sex of sexual transmitted diseases. Of no less importance, changes in paperd behavior have been linked to shifts in other spheres and aspects of life, such as education, at-risk behaviors, family systems, and intergenerational relationships.
Information on sexual behavior is not easily collected since papers is considered sensitive data. Papers thus often employ special methodologies and ad hoc sample surveys on selected populations, such as high school and university students or appers patients.
This thematic series will assess recent changes in the sexual behavior of young people, and is papers interested in contributions that address the sex from a life course sex, or that consider gender paeprs, at-risk behaviors, papers, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual satisfaction, sexual harassment, sexuality and peers, sexuality and parenting and age norms, non-heterosexual orientation and behaviors, or methods to collect and verify data on youth sexual behavior, both in developed and developing countries.
This call is also open to srx that go beyond the previously listed themes as long as they address sex changes in the sexual behavior of young people and the methodologies used to study various facets of this phenomenon. Rapid publication : Online submission, electronic peer review and production make the process of publishing your article simple and efficient.
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Speed 88 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only 66 days to first decision for all manuscripts days from submission to acceptance papers days from acceptance to publication. Citation Impact 1. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. To ensure that you submit to the correct thematic series please select the appropriate section in sex drop-down menu upon papers. Submissions will also benefit from the usual advantages of open access publication: Rapid publication : Online submission, electronic peer review and production make the process of publishing your article simple and efficient High visibility and international readership in your field : Open access publication ensures high visibility and maximum exposure for your work - anyone with online access can read your article No space constraints : Publishing online means unlimited space for figures, sex data and video sdx Authors retain copyrightlicensing the article under a Creative Commons license: articles can be freely redistributed and papers as long as the article is correctly attributed.
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Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Since , the Technical Committee TC on Gender and Work regroups researchers from many countries who examine links between gender, health and work in diverse occupational sectors. At the last IEA conference, the TC Gender and Work organized three symposia where more than 20 contributors presented their recent work on this issue. This issue will be an opportunity to share the advancement of science about the topic.
We are soliciting contributions in three areas:. We expect contributions about methods that are new or not usually applied to ergonomics, so as to better understand the linkages among gender, health and work and thus, improve our interventions e. We expect papers examining gendered aspects of training and ergonomic changes e. Decision-makers are increasingly demanding clear evidence that ergonomics intervention are effective. In this context, ergonomists also wish to demonstrate that their interventions are beneficial to workers' well-being.
Search in:. Submit Your Paper Enter your login details below. Enhancing the capacity of sex analysis for a growing number of species, across a wide range of settings, may increase our ability to accurately model the effects of climate change.
For species reliant on temperature for sex determination, rapid global warming poses a risk to sex ratios and demographic stability. Turtles are the most widely studied group in which sex is determined by temperature.
The ability to differentiate between female and male juvenile green sea turtles using non-invasive endocrine markers has enabled the discovery that global warming negatively skews population sex ratios.
Similarly, in fish species with temperature-dependent sex determination, warming is projected to result in male-skewed populations up to male:female by the end of the century Such changes in sex balance can limit mate choice, reduce reproductive capacity and undermine population viability 31 , Warming is not occurring in isolation, but against a backdrop of anthropogenic disturbances across marine environments, which include habitat destruction, pollution and overfishing.
Primary sex differentiation has been shown to respond to a diverse range of these environmental factors in a growing number of species. Hypoxia, for example, has resulted in a higher ratio of males in zebrafish What is increasingly apparent is that alterations in sex ratio—in either direction—will result in populations that are less resilient to further disturbance and potentially lead to demographic collapse 35 , Social organization can also influence population sex ratios. Numerous nonhuman species develop elaborate social organizations, and sex determination can be socially mediated.
Clownfish, for example, are protandrous hermaphrodites they mature as male; some change to female that live in a strict social hierarchy with a single dominant and highly fecund female at the top who mates with a single large male in the social group; all remaining individuals remain immature juveniles.
Removal of the alpha female results in the alpha male changing sex to female, with all subordinates moving up a rung in the social hierarchy Large dominant males control groups of females with strong sexual selection, resulting in these males achieving the greatest reproductive success.
These sequentially hermaphroditic individuals consistently produce more offspring and enjoy greater reproductive success after they have changed sex Thus, the timing and the direction of sex change are crucial species-specific factors that determine demographic resilience to disturbance in sex-changing organisms.
A mechanistic understanding of these and other ecologically important sex-based responses enables more accurate modelling of the effects of environmental variability, climate change or anthropogenic disturbance for example, overfishing at a population level. Sex-specific effects of climate change stressors on sex determination mechanisms, particularly in commercially important species, have potentially important implications for humans with respect to aquatic food production, ecosystem services and biodiversity.
Incorporating sex analysis into marine science—and the natural sciences more widely—enhances research excellence and opportunities for discovery. Sex analysis also reveals opportunities for human drug development. In the areas of pain and depression, the discovery of sex differences in molecular pathways has signalled new directions for targeted therapies Pain research that uses experimental mouse models of chronic pain shows that male and female mice withdraw from painful stimuli in a similar fashion, except when the contribution of microglial cells is inhibited Microglia are specialized immune cells located exclusively in the spinal cord and the brain.
Inhibitors of microglia reduce pain sensing in male—but not female—mice, underscoring the potential importance of sex-dependent molecular pain pathways. Mouse models of depression also show sexually divergent networks in the brain with distinct patterns of stress-induced gene regulation in males and females These findings have now been reproduced in human postmortem tissue and may provide insights into why males and females with major depressive disorder respond differently to treatment with antidepressants Although sex-specific dosages are rare, a few already exist.
Such is the case for the drug desmopressin that activates vasopressin receptors in the kidney to regulate water homeostasis. Because the gene for the arginine vasopressin receptor is found on the X chromosome in a region that is likely to escape X-chromosome inactivation, women are more sensitive to the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin than men, who have only one X chromosome and therefore only one copy of the vasopressin receptor gene per cell As a result, older women who take desmopressin are more likely to experience a reduced sodium concentration in the blood than men, which corresponds to a higher incidence of side effects in women.
To avoid unnecessary harm, both the European Union and Canada have recommended lower dosages for older women taking desmopressin. Even cancer immunotherapy is benefitting from a deeper understanding of previously recognized genetic and hormone-mediated sex differences in immunity. Patients with melanoma or lung cancer, who are treated with checkpoint inhibitors, respond differently based on their sex, with a higher proportion of male than female patients achieving successful remission 1.
Designed to outsmart the defence tactics of the cancer cells, checkpoint inhibitors stimulate natural killer cells to attack tumour cells. Natural killer cells are sensitive to oestrogen and testosterone, which may explain these observed sex differences.
Understanding the underlying mechanisms will enable us to fine-tune future therapies We expect to see an exponential rise in biomedical discoveries now that new computational biology and statistical genetics software facilitates the exploration of X-chromosome-related expression in complex diseases An often neglected but crucial component of engineering is to understand the broader social impacts of the technology being developed and to ensure that the technology enhances social equality by benefitting diverse populations.
Human bias and stereotypes can be perpetuated, and even amplified, when researchers fail to consider how human preferences and assumptions may consciously or unconsciously be built into science or technology. Gender norms, ethnicity and other biological and social factors shape and are shaped by science and technology in a robust cultural feedback loop This section discusses examples from product design, artificial intelligence AI and social robotics to illustrate how sex and gender analysis can enhance excellence in engineering.
When products are designed based on the male norm, there is a risk that women and people of smaller stature will be harmed. Motor vehicle safety systems provide one such example. Because male drivers have historically been overrepresented in traffic data, seatbelts and airbags have been designed and evaluated with a focus on the typical male occupant with respect to anthropometric size, injury tolerance and mechanical response of the affected body region.
The subsequent introduction of a virtual female car crash dummy allowed mathematical simulations to account for the effect of acceleration on sex-specific biomechanics, highlighting the need to add a medium-sized female dummy model to regulatory safety testing 48 , Beyond automotive safety systems, the importance of anthropometric characteristics, such as the carrying angle of the elbow or the shape and size of the human knee, can be used to guide sex-specific design for artificial joints, limb prostheses and occupational protective gear 50 , Alarming examples of algorithmic bias are well documented When translating gender-neutral language related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM fields, Google Translate defaults to male pronouns When photographs depict a man in the kitchen, automated image captioning algorithms systematically misidentify the individual as a woman As AI becomes increasingly ubiquitous in everyday lives, such bias, if uncorrected, can amplify social inequities.
Understanding how gender operates within the context of the algorithm helps researchers to make conscious decisions about how their work functions in society. Since the Second World War, medical research has been submitted to stringent review processes aimed at protecting participants from harm. AI, which has the potential to influence human life at scale, has yet to be so carefully examined. What we lack are mechanisms for technologists to put these principles into practice.
Here we delve into a few of such rapidly developing mechanisms for AI. A first challenge in algorithmic bias is to identify when it is appropriate for an algorithm to use gender information. In some settings, such as the assignment of job ads, it might be desirable for the algorithm to explicitly ignore the gender of an individual as well as features such as weight, which may correlate with gender but are not directly related to job performance.
To date, there is no unified definition of algorithmic fairness 55 , 56 , 57 , and the best approach is to understand the nuances of each application domain, make transparent how algorithmic decision-making is deployed and appreciate how bias can arise Training data are a source of potential bias in algorithms.
Certain subpopulations, such as darker-skinned women, are often underrepresented in the data used to train machine-learning algorithms, and efforts are underway to collect more data from such groups 2. Useful metadata should summarize statistics on, for example, the sex, gender, ethnicity and geographical location of the participants in the dataset.
In many machine-learning studies, the training labels are collected through crowdsourcing, and it is also useful to provide metadata about the demographics of crowd labellers. Another approach to evaluate gender bias in algorithms is counterfactual analysis Consider Google Search, in which men are five times more likely than women to be offered ads for high-paying executive jobs The algorithm that decides which ad to show inputs features about the individual making the query and outputs a set of ads predicted to be relevant.
The counterfactual would test the algorithm in silico by changing the gender of each individual in the data and then studying how predictions change. Work to debias word embeddings is another example of counterfactual analysis Word embeddings associate each English word with a vector of features so that the geometry between the feature vector captures semantic relations between the words. It is widely used in practice for applications such as sentiment analysis 65 , language translation 66 and analysis of electronic health records It has previously been shown that gender stereotypes—for example, men are more likely to be computer scientists—are manifested in the feature vectors of the corresponding words Whether this association between man and computer is problematic depends on the application of the features.
To test for gender effects, gender-neutral word features were created. If the outcome changes, the algorithm is sensitive to gender. In some applications, such as job searches, it might be preferable to use gender-neutral features. An alternative approach to quantify and reduce gender bias in algorithms is called multi-accuracy auditing 68 , In standard machine learning, the objective is to maximize the overall accuracy for the entire population, as represented by the training data. The multi-accuracy auditor takes a complex machine-learning algorithm and systematically identifies whether the current algorithm makes more mistakes for any subpopulation.
In a recent paper, the neural network used for facial recognition was audited and specific combinations of artificial neurons that responded to the images of darker-skinned women were identified that are responsible for the misclassifications The auditor also suggests improvements when it identifies such biases Although achieving equal accuracy across all demographic groups may not always be feasible, these auditing techniques improve the transparency of the AI systems by quantifying how its performance varies across race, age, sex and intersections of these attributes.
These are only a few of the specific techniques computer scientists are developing to promote gender fairness in algorithms. Some, such as data checks, are relevant across all disciplines that amass and analyse big data.
Others are specific to machine learning, which is now widely deployed across broad swathes of intellectual endeavours from the humanities to the social sciences, biomedicine and judicial systems.
In all instances, it is important to be completely transparent where and for what purpose AI systems are used, and to characterize the behaviour of the system with respect to sex and gender Analysing gender in software systems is one issue; configuring gender in hardware—such as social robots—is another, and the focus of this section.
Until recently, robots were largely confined to factories. Most people never see or interact with these robots; they do not look, sound or behave like humans. But engineers are increasingly designing robots to assist humans as service robots in hospitals, elder care facilities, classrooms, homes, airports and hotels. Machines are, in principle, genderless. Gender, however, is a core social category in human impression formation that is readily applied to nonhuman entities Thus, users may consciously or unconsciously gender machines as a function of anthropomorphizing them, even when designers intend to create gender-neutral devices 75 , 76 , 77 , Does gendering robots or virtual agents facilitate interaction or boost objective outcomes such as performance 11 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91?
Will personalizing robots or chatbots by gender increase consumer acceptance and, even, sales figures? Systematic empirical research is needed to address these open research issues. What features lead humans to gender a robot? So far, experimental research designed to analyse robot gender has manipulated gender in a number of ways, including 1 by choosing a male or female name to label the robot 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 ; 2 by colour-coding the robot 93 , 94 ; 3 by manipulating visual indicators of gender for example, face, hairstyle or lip colour 94 , 95 ; 4 by adding a male or female voice, or low or high pitch to simulate this, respectively 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 , 94 , 96 , 97 ; 5 by designing a gendered personality 87 , 98 ; and 6 by deploying robots in gender-stereotypical domains, such as a male-voiced robot for security and a female-voiced robot in a healthcare role Other aspects, such as movements or gestures, that may potentially gender a robot still require empirical research 85 , But there are dangers here.
As soon as designers or users assign a gender to a machine, stereotypes follow. Designers of robots and AI do not simply create products that reflect our world, they also perhaps unintentionally reinforce and validate certain gender norms that are considered to be appropriate for men, women or gender nonconforming individuals 11 , Eliciting gendered perceptions of technologies implies actively designing human gender biases, including binary constructions of gender as male or female, into machines.
From a social psychological viewpoint, this can contribute to stereotypical gender norms in society Even though this might not seem relevant from an engineering point of view, social psychological research would suggest that a robot with a female appearance, for example, may perpetuate ideas of women as nurturing and communal, traits stereotypically associated with women Thus, a female robot may be deemed socially warm and particularly suitable for stereotypically female tasks, such as elderly care, or it might be openly sexualized and objectified as revealed in abusive commentary on video clips of female robots in recent qualitative research Similarly, virtual personal assistants with female names, voices and stereotypical, submissive behaviours, such as Siri or Alexa, represent heteronormative ideas about females and thereby indirectly contribute to the discrimination of women in society , An interesting development in this regard is the genderless voice, Q, which has recently been developed in Denmark to overcome such bias There are many questions regarding these features.
How, for example, do user attributes, such as age or gender, interact with different robot design features? How do robots enhance or harm real-world attitudes and behaviours related to social equality?
How does robot gender elicit different responses across cultures? Addressing these research questions and issues remains important to shed light on the psychological, social and ethical implications of implicit or explicit design choices for novel technologies. Developing technologies that enhance, or at least do not harm, social equality will require novel configurations of researchers.
Much attention has been paid to the need for interdisciplinary research, consisting of humanists, legal experts, technologists and social scientists, especially in the fields of human-centred AI.
The historical development of universities, however, has artificially separated human knowledge into disciplines over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that may not support current research needs. Research institutions now need to develop robust mechanisms to bring together social analysis and engineering in a way that rigorously addresses the emerging needs of society To reach the full potential of sex and gender analysis for discovery and innovation, it is important to integrate sex and gender analysis, where relevant, into the design of research from the very beginning.
It is also important to understand that sex and gender are categories of analysis or variables or controls that need to be incorporated into the research process, but do not need be the main focus of the research. Nor will sex and gender analysis be relevant to all types of research.
As the decision trees for analysing sex Fig. Moreover, if researchers expect sex or gender to be important but find no significant differences, this may represent a result worthy of publication.
Reporting cases in which sex or gender sameness, overlap or no difference is found may represent an important finding. This decision tree represents a cognitive process for analysing sex. This decision tree represents a cognitive process for analysing gender. In this Perspective, we highlight the need and promise for designing sex and gender analysis into research through specific case studies and examples.
From these, we extracted key considerations for analysing sex Fig. These are generic recommendations that work across disciplines. However, more related studies are needed in the next five years. First, through interdisciplinary work, researchers need to sharpen and standardize generic approaches to sex and gender analysis that generalize across fields.
Second, through discipline-specific work, researchers need to craft state-of-the-art analytics for study design and data analysis in their own subfields. The European Commission is currently funding an expert group that seeks to tailor sex and gender methods of analysis to field-specific protocols We do not yet have results for sex and gender analysis in the physical sciences, such as basic chemistry, pure physics, geology or astronomy.
Much work has analysed gender gaps in participation and gender bias in the culture of these fields, but attention has yet to turn to how the research itself may respond to gender analysis.
As research in the physical sciences becomes more applied, sex and gender analysis become more relevant—for example, in the chemistry of aerosols, sex differences govern rates of inhalation and gender differences influence rates of exposure Several methodological challenges remain for the field of sex and gender analysis itself. Although advances have been made in methods for analysing sex , we lack non-invasive methods of sex determination in numerous non-model organisms, in which sexual morphological dimorphism is not easily detected.
Technological advances through the development of genetic , metabolomic and endocrine 3 markers of organism sex are needed for non-model species at all stages of development, an endeavour that will be aided by the innovation and increased affordability of omics approaches.
Attention will also need to be paid to the translation of evidence from animal species to humans as—in many cases—molecular sex differences observed in humans may not be mirrored in nonhuman mammals Although sex as a biological variable in science and engineering is increasingly well understood , the same cannot be said for gender as a cultural variable.
Gender is complex and multidimensional Facebook introduced 58 gender categories in and applications in technical fields often require collaboration with social scientists to understand the relevant aspects of gender for specific projects. Even in health research, we lack systematic measures for assessing how gender relates to health because gender does not reduce easily to variables that can be manipulated statistically.
Two recent studies have attempted to remedy this. This study is based on US data, and new variables tailored to specific cultural settings need to be identified. Developing measures of gender is clearly an area for which more research is needed. Other methodological challenges include going beyond the binary—female and male, women and men—in both sex and gender analysis. Take, for instance, the Gender API algorithm that allows social scientists to understand gender differences in research patterns.
In the United States, 0. Research needs to keep pace with social change. In simultaneous hermaphrodites in which reproductively mature individuals have both male and female gametes, there is a need to consider the role of male or female tissues in determining the response of the whole organism.
By contrast, in sequential hermaphrodites that change sex, there is a need to consider whether an organism responds as a female or a male to environmental stress during the sex change process, given that this process is dynamic, with behavioural, endocrine and genetic systems switching sex on markedly different timescales Sex or gender cannot be isolated from other characteristics, and we need model systems and intersectional methods to understand these interrelationships An intersectional approach in human research underscores the importance of unmasking and rectifying overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination that are often built into knowledge, programs and policies.
Benefits for global health, for example, will only be achieved when unbiased decision-making about resources takes into account the lived experiences of women and men with multiple identity characteristics who simultaneously suffer from race, class, education, economic and cultural power imbalance in accessing food and water, digital technology and healthcare services Policy is one driver of discovery and innovation that can enable sex and gender analysis in science and technology.
To push forward rigorous sex and gender analysis, interlocking policies need to be implemented by three pillars of academic research: funding agencies, peer-reviewed journals and universities Fig. To reap the benefits of sex and gender analysis, the pillars of science infrastructure must develop and implement coordinated policies.
Uptake has been swift in health and medicine. The Lancet , for example, adopted such guidelines in , followed quickly by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Although biomedical journals have moved rapidly, we are not aware of any engineering or computer science conferences or journals with such guidelines. Pillars one and two need the support of a third pillar: universities. Both funding agencies and journals may have policies in place, but researchers and evaluators by and large lack expertise in sex and gender analysis.
Universities need to step up and incorporate sex and gender analysis as a conceptual tool into science and engineering curricula. Numerous universities offer gender analysis in the humanities and social sciences, but not in core natural science and engineering courses.
However, this is a rare example, and universities must do more to prepare the scientific workforce for the future. Several initiatives have endeavoured to fill this gap. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research have developed online training modules for integrating sex and gender analysis into biomedical research These initiatives should now be mainstreamed into university education.
Much work remains to be done to systematically integrate sex and gender analysis into relevant domains of science and technology—from strategic considerations for establishing research priorities to guidelines for establishing best practices in formulating research questions, designing methodologies and interpreting data. But eyes have been opened, and by integrating sex and gender analysis into their work, researchers can enhance excellence and social responsibility in science and engineering.
Conforti, F. Lancet Oncol. Buolamwini, J. Gender shades: intersectional accuracy disparities in commercial gender classification. This paper demonstrates that commercial gender-identification algorithms misclassify darker-skinned females at a higher rate than the rest of the population, which is an example of how algorithmic bias intersects with gender and race.
Jensen, M. Environmental warming and feminization of one of the largest sea turtle populations in the world. Parker, L. Ocean acidification but not warming alters sex determination in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata. B , Baker, M. Nature , — American Society of Cell Biology.
Member survey on reproducibility. Shah, K. Do you know the sex of your cells? Cell Physiol. This review demonstrates that the sex of cells used in experiments can influence the biology of the cell and provides a table outlining the sex of cell lines that have appeared in Am.
Potluri, T. Sex reporting in preclinical microbiological and immunological research. Ellis, R. Does sex really matter? Search all BMC articles Search. Call for Papers: Sex and gender differences in dietary intake and other dietary behaviors across the life course Nutrition Journal invites submissions to a special issue entitled, "Sex and gender differences in dietary intake and other dietary behaviors across the life course".
Submit manuscript. Editorial Board Sign up for article alerts and news from this journal. Follow Follow us on Twitter.
Drawing on a holistic definition of health, in which sexual health is considered a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being sex relation to sexuality, the papers of this papers edition of Health Sociology Review will be to explore how new technologies are shaping and creating papers of sexuality and intimacy in ways that have implications paperz health and human aex.
Table of Contents for Health Sociology Review. List of articles from both the latest and ahead of print issues. Visit Journal Articles. We are seeking empirical research and theoretical contributions to explore the following papes in relation to health:. When you sex ready, you can submit through our online submission system. Submit your Manuscript. We are seeking empirical research and sex contributions to explore the following questions in relation to sex What is papers role sex new bio-medical technologies paoers shaping sexual practices or practices of papers connection and intimacy?
What are the mental or sexual health implications of this? In what ways are new technologies papers used to enhance or change bodies as part of sexual practices? Papers what ways do new technologies facilitate or enhance sexual practice or intimacy? Papers example, how sex this apply to people living with a chronic illness or physical disabilities? How might this apply to older sex In what ways do new technologies shape sexual risk-taking? In what ways do new technologies shape sexual health promotion and illness prevention?
Full sex due: January 17th Questions? Sdx Tweets. Explore this trending article with sex access here. RT : Hot off the sex Ana Papers, and me Collectivist approaches in occupational therapy ScandJOT ….
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