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The history-sussex inhabitants of the area were members of the Photo Mac tribe of the great Algonquin family. A Paleo-Indian site at Debert, Photo Scotia, indicates that these people moved history-sussex the area shortly after de-glaciation. Photo were histpry-sussex photo by the abundant food history-sussex in the forest and rivers. Evidence from the Debert site, and Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick, indicates the presence of caribou; fish were also abundant.
Photo reason that Acadian settlers apparently were not history-sussex to the Kennebecasis and Trout Creek valleys was probably related to the fact that they preferred draining the fertile marshes along the head of the Photo of Fundy rather photo creating farmland by removing the forest.
History-susswx aboiteaux were wooden history-sussex built in the dykes that allowed the land to drain by gravity during history-sussex tide and that closed by pressure of the water during high tide. The Acadians were very successful in the type of marsh agriculture and produced considerable amounts of surplus food. Although not officially permitted by the French authorities, the surplus food was traded for manufactured goods in Massachusetts.
Sussex Vale constituted part hostory-sussex this photo route, which extended history-sussex Beaubassin, in the Isthmus of Chenecto, via the Petitcodiac, Anagance and History-sussex rivers to Saint John. Robert Wade. Photo was best known for his many mercy and rescue flights. An outstanding character of the late s was Hugh McMonagle. He became the proprietor of the wellknown McMonagle Inn, which still stands at the cross-roads and is now used as a residence.
He was married twice — history-sussex twin sisters, Margaret and Mary Roach.
The Acadians were very successful in the type of marsh agriculture and produced considerable amounts of surplus food. Although not officially permitted by the French authorities, the surplus food was traded for manufactured goods in Massachusetts. Sussex Vale constituted part of this trading route, which extended from Beaubassin, in the Isthmus of Chenecto, via the Petitcodiac, Anagance and Kennebecasis rivers to Saint John.
Robert Wade. I have information on nearly every photographer who was active in Sussex between and Over the coming months I will be adding material to the Sussex Photohistory website until each of the towns and villages named above has its own Photohistory and Studio Directory.
If the information you require is not yet featured on this website, feel free to contact me by e-mail. Fry ; Hastings Family Photographs. Cox ; J. Grey ; Sidney W. Joseph Langridge ; ; O. Bristow cabinets ; W. I would also be pleased to hear from any person who has family links with a photographer who was active in Sussex between and Thanks, David Simkin If you have any questions or enquiries regarding Sussex PhotoHistory please contact me by e-mail.
To contact me, please send an e-mail to SussexPhotoHistory at my gmail account. Portrait Artists 2. Miniature painters 3. Profilists and Silhouette Artists 4. A special thanks to John Roles who provided my first introduction to Victorian and Edwardian photographs. This website is dedicated to the memory of Arthur T. Gill Early Portrait Photographers in Sussex William Constable was probably the first professional photographer to operate a photographic portrait studio in Sussex.
By , Constable had been joined in Brighton by at least 10 rival photographers. Initially, Richard Beauford took small daguerreotype portraits at the Assembly Rooms in St Leonards, but by August , he had established a permanent photographic portrait studio at No. Richard Beauford's married sister, Mrs Maria King born c, London took her brother's place in the Assembly Rooms at the beginning of , thus becoming, probably, the first woman to work as an independent photographer in Sussex.
In Lewes , in , Edwin Blagrove and his partner Mr. Moore were taking daguerreotype portraits on Brack Mount, near Lewes Castle. James Russell junior was possibly taking photographic portraits at Edward Reeves' jeweller's shop in Lewes's High Street as early as Professional photography had an uncertain start in West Sussex.
Home Leisure, recreation and community History and heritage Online photo database. Online photo database Search over 30, photos and 5, digital images available at the Record Office. Last updated: 20 November Share this. Share this. Do you have any feedback about this page? Help us improve this website Let us know if this page was helpful so we can make improvements.
It is bounded to the west by Hampshirenorth by Surreynortheast by Kentsouth by the English Channeland divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hovethough part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority inand as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in Until then, Chichester was Sussex's only city.
Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented approximately east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downsbeyond which is the well-wooded Sussex Weald. Aroundit was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex photo and subsequently into the kingdom of England. It was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominidswhose remains have been found at Boxgrove.
It was invaded by the Romans and is the site of the Battle of Hastings. Inthe Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became history-sussex ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as a geographical territory photo cultural region.
It has had a single police force since and its name is in common use in the media. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martletsthe flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in InSecretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and history-sussex the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex. EssexMiddlesex and Wessex.
The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the Photo German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries. The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong; recent scholars have suggested he might have been a quarter of a century too late. The flag of Sussex consists of six gold martletsor heraldic swallowson a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or.
Officially recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 Mayits design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex. The first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons.
However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather history-sussex being the inventor of the association.
It is now firmly regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th-century Knight of the ShireSir John de Radynden. Sussex by the Sea photo regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex; it was composed by William Ward-Higgs inperhaps originally from the lyrics of Rudyard Kipling 's poem entitled Sussex.
The county day, called Sussex Dayis celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of ChichesterSussex's patron saintwhose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Sussex's motto, We wunt be druvis a Sussex dialect expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women.
The round-headed rampionalso known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in The physical geography of Sussex relies heavily on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticlinethe major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex: . At m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top. Ditchling Beacon m is the highest history-sussex in East Sussex. At kilometres 70 miles long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex. The longest river entirely in Sussex is the River Arun, which is 60 kilometres 37 miles long.
Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs. The coastal resorts of Sussex and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom. The climate of the coastal districts is strongly influenced by the sea, which, because of its tendency to warm up slower than land, can result in cooler temperatures than inland in the summer.
In the autumn months, the coast sometimes has higher temperatures. In winter, the east winds can be as cold as further inland. The sunshine average is approximately 1, hours a year; this is much higher than the UK average of 1, hours a year.
Most of Sussex's population is distributed in an east-west line along the English Channel coast or on the east-west line of the A The exception to this pattern is photo 20th century north-south development on the A23 - Brighton line corridorSussex's main link to London. According to the ONS urban area populations for continuous built-up areas, these are the 5 largest conurbations population figures from the census :.
In the census this urban area included Reigate and Redhill in Surrey but in the census it did not. East Grinstead was part of this urban area for the census but it was not for previous censuses. The combined population of History-sussex is about 1. The earliest statement as to the population of Sussex is made by Bede, who describes the county as containing in land of 7, families; allowing ten to a family a reasonable estimate at that datethe total population would be 70, In the county is stated to have contained 21, houses.
The census found that the population wasThe decline of the Sussex ironworks probably accounts for the small increase of population during several centuries, although after the massacre of St Bartholomew upwards of 1, Huguenots landed at Rye, and inafter the revocation of the Edict of Nantesmany more refugees were added to the county. Finds at Eartham Pit in Boxgrove show that the area has some of the earliest hominid remains in Europe, dating back someyears and known as Boxgrove Man or Homo heidelbergensis.
At a site near Pulborough called The Beedings, tools have photo found that date from around 35, years ago and that are thought to be from either the last Neanderthals in northern Europe or pioneer populations of modern humans. Later in the Neolithic period, the area of photo South Downs above Worthing was one of Britain's largest and most important flint -mining centres.
Flint tools from Cissbury have been found as far away as the eastern Mediterranean. Towards the end of the Photo Age in 75BC people from the Atrebatesone of the tribes of the Belgaea mix of Celtic and German stock, started invading and occupying southern Britain. At the time of the Roman conquest in AD43, there was an oppidum in the southern part of their territory, probably in the Selsey region. According to this theory, the Romans were called to restore the refugee Vericaking of the Atrebates, who had been driven out by the Catuvellaunia tribe based around modern Hertfordshire.
Sussex was home to the magnificent Roman Palace at Fishbourneby far the largest Roman residence known north of the Alps. The Romans built villas, especially on the coastal plain and around Chichester, one of the best preserved being that at Bignor.
Christianity first came to Sussex at this time, but faded away when the Romans left in the 5th century. The nationally important Patching hoard of Roman coins photo was found in is the latest find of Roman coins found in Britainprobably deposited after AD, well after the Roman departure from Britain around AD. He was probably the most senior of the Anglo-Saxon kings and led the ill-fated campaign against King Arthur at Photo Badon.
By the end of the 7th century, the region around Selsey and Chichester had become the political centre of the kingdom. In the ss, King Aethelwealh of Sussex formed an alliance with the Mercian king Wulfhere and together they took the Isle of Wight from the West Saxons, probably at the battle of Biedanheafele. The South Saxons fought off the West Saxons in and again in At the end of the 8th century, Ealdwulf was perhaps the last independent king of Sussex, after which Sussex and other southern kingdoms came increasingly under Mercian rule.
Mercia's grip was shattered in at the battle of Ellendunafter which Sussex and the other southern kingdoms came under the control of Wessex, which later grew into the kingdom of England. In SeptemberWilliam of Normandy landed with his forces at Pevensey and erected a wooden castle at Hastingsfrom which they raided the surrounding area.
It is likely that all the fighting men of Sussex were at the battle, as the county's thegns were decimated and any that survived had their lands confiscated. Sussex experienced some of the greatest changes of any English county under the Normans, for it was the heartland of King Harold and was potentially vulnerable to further invasion.
Castles were built to defend the territories including at Arundel, Bramber, Lewes, Pevensey and History-sussex. The subsequent treaty, known as the Mise of Lewesled to Montfort summoning the first parliament in English history without any prior royal authorisation. A provisional administration was set up, consisting of Montfort, the Bishop of Chichester and the Earl history-sussex Gloucester. These three were to elect a council of nine, to govern until a permanent settlement could be reached.
During the Hundred Years' WarSussex found itself on the frontline, convenient both for intended invasions history-sussex retaliatory expeditions by licensed French pirates. Also at this time, Amberley and Bodiam castles were built to history-sussex the upper photo of navigable rivers. Under Elizabeth Ireligious intolerance continued albeit on a lesser scale, with several people being executed for their Catholic beliefs. Sussex escaped the worst ravages of the English Civil Waralthough in there were sieges at Arundel and Chichester, and a skirmish at Haywards Heath when Royalists marching towards Lewes were intercepted by local Parliamentarians.
The Royalists were routed with around killed or taken prisoner. The Sussex coast was greatly modified by the social movement of sea bathing for health which became fashionable among the wealthy in the second half of the 18th century. Railways spread across Sussex in the 19th century and county councils were created for Sussex's eastern and western divisions in With the declaration of World War IISussex found itself part of the country's frontline with its airfields playing a key history-sussex in the Battle of Britain and with its towns being some of the most frequently bombed.
In the post-war era, the New Towns Act designated Crawley as the site of a new town. Boundaries were changed and a large part of the rape of Lewes was transferred from the eastern division into West Sussex, along with Gatwick Airport, which was historically part of the county of Surrey.
After the union with Scotland two members represented the county in the House of Commons of Great Britain from to and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from to After the Reform Act some of the larger industrial towns of northern England were enfranchised for the first time and smaller English photo known as Rotten Boroughs were disenfranchised, including Bramber, East Grinstead, Seaford, Steyning and Winchelsea in Sussex.
There is also a third-tier Crown Court at Chichester. A rape was a traditional sub-division of the county of Sussex. Their origin is unknown, but they appear to predate the Norman Conquest. The rape of Bramber was created later in the 11th century and the rape of Chichester was created in the 13th century. Sussex is divided into two administrative counties and one unitary authority, Brighton and Hove. The divisions of east Sussex and west Sussex have their roots in the church's division of the history-sussex at the river Adur into east and west parts divided from at least the 11th century into the archdeaconry of Chichester and the archdeaconry of Lewes.
With Sussex's cathedral located at Chichester in the far west of the county, 9 miles from the western boundary and 90 miles from the eastern boundary, it became practical to divide the county into two sections.
The three eastern rapes of Sussex became east Sussex and the three western rapes became west Sussex. An act of Henry VII dating from directed that, for convenience, the two halves of the county should history-sussex separate administrations Quarter Sessions. This situation was recognised by the County of Sussex Act Under the Local Government Actthe two divisions became two administrative counties along with three county boroughs : Brighton, Hastings and, fromEastbourne.
Much of the Sussex Weald consists of wet sticky clays or drought-prone acid sands and is often broken up into small irregular fields and woods by the topography, making it unsuitable for intensive arable farming. In these areas pastoral or mixed farming has always been the pattern, with field boundaries often little changed since the medieval period.
Sussex cattle are the descendants of the draught oxen, which continued to be used in the Weald longer than in other parts of England.
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Search over photos and digital images available at the Record agricultural, industrial and historical development of West Sussex. Formed over years ago, Eastbourne Photographic Society has a rich and interesting history. Our timeline shows how we have developed over the years.
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