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As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system by high doses of GHB may be involved in certain neuropharmacological events induced by GHB administration. However, at therapeutic doses, GHB reaches much higher concentrations in the brain and activates GABA B receptors, which are primarily responsible for its sedative effects.

GHB receptors are densely expressed in many areas of the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, and these are the receptors that GHB displays the highest affinity for. There has been somewhat limited research into the GHB receptor; however, there is evidence that activation of the GHB receptor in some brain areas results in the release of glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter. GHB's effect on dopamine release is biphasic. Both the inhibition and increase of dopamine release by GHB are inhibited by opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone.

Dynorphin may play a role in the inhibition of dopamine release via kappa opioid receptors. This explains the paradoxical mix of sedative and stimulatory properties of GHB, as well as the so-called "rebound" effect, experienced by individuals using GHB as a sleeping agent, wherein they awake suddenly after several hours of GHB-induced deep sleep.

That is to say that, over time, the concentration of GHB in the system decreases below the threshold for significant GABA B receptor activation and activates predominantly the GHB receptor, leading to wakefulness. Recently, analogs of GHB, such as 4-hydroxymethylpentanoic acid UMB68 have been synthesised and tested on animals, in order to gain a better understanding of GHB's mode of action.

Both of the metabolic breakdown pathways shown for GHB can run in either direction, depending on the concentrations of the substances involved, so the body can make its own GHB either from GABA or from succinic semialdehyde. Under normal physiological conditions, the concentration of GHB in the body is rather low, and the pathways would run in the reverse direction to what is shown here to produce endogenous GHB. However, when GHB is consumed for recreational or health promotion purposes, its concentration in the body is much higher than normal, which changes the enzyme kinetics so that these pathways operate to metabolise GHB rather than producing it.

Alexander Zaytsev worked on this chemical family and published work on it in GHB and sodium oxybate were also studied for use in narcolepsy from the s onwards. In May GHB was introduced as a dietary supplement and was marketed to body builders, for help with weight control and as a sleep aid, and as a "replacement" for l-tryptophan , which was removed from the market in November when batches contaminated with trace impurities [99] were found to cause eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome , although eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome is also tied to tryptophan overload.

At the same time, research on the use of GHB in the form of sodium oxybate had formalized, as a company called Orphan Medical had filed an investigational new drug application and was running clinical trials with the intention of gaining regulatory approval for use to treat narcolepsy. A popular children's toy, Bindeez also known as Aqua Dots, in the United States , produced by Melbourne company Moose, was banned in Australia in early November when it was discovered that 1,4-butanediol 1,4-B , which is metabolized into GHB, had been substituted for the non-toxic plasticiser 1,5-pentanediol in the bead manufacturing process.

Three young children were hospitalized as a result of ingesting a large number of the beads, and the toy was recalled. Their report concluded that the minimal use of Xyrem in the UK meant that prescribers would be minimally inconvenienced by the rescheduling. It can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purposes. The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription.

GABA itself is also listed as an illegal drug in these jurisdictions, which seems unusual given its failure to cross the blood—brain barrier, but there was a perception among legislators that all known analogues should be covered as far as this was possible. Sodium oxybate is also used therapeutically in Italy under the brand name Alcover for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and dependence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical compound.

US : C Risk not ruled out. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Sudbury, Mass. Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May From Chocolate to Morphine 2nd ed.

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University of Hawaii. Jan Last accessed 4 Jan Toxichem Krimtech. Alcohol and Alcoholism. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Sleep Medicine. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. Psicothema in Spanish. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

February Neurochemistry International. June Metabolic Brain Disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. Wheel-running attenuates intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats: sex differences. Opioid-dependent anticipatory negative contrast and binge-like eating in rats with limited access to highly preferred food. Repeated social-defeat stress, cocaine or morphine. Intense cocaine self-administration after episodic social defeat stress, but not after aggressive behavior: dissociation from corticosterone activation.

The nature of sexual reinforcement. J Exp Anal Behav. Opposite effects of amphetamine self-administration experience on dendritic spines in the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. Prevalence and predictors of pathological gambling: results from the St. J Psychiatr Res. The effect of exercise in reducing desire to smoke and cigarette withdrawal symptoms is not caused by distraction. Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence.

Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat. Behav Neurosci. Electrophysiological correlates of abused drugs: relation to natural rewards. Differential rearing conditions alter operant responding for ethanol in outbred rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Neurotransmitters and prefrontal cortex-limbic system interactions: implications for plasticity and psychiatric disorders. J Neural Transm. Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. The regulation of subcortical dopamine systems by the prefrontal cortex: interactions of central dopamine systems and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

J Neural Transm Suppl. How visual stimuli activate dopaminergic neurons at short latency. Taste preferences and food intake. Annu Rev Nutr. Neural plasticity to stress and antidepressant treatment. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice with access to a running wheel. Dramatic decreases in brain reward function during nicotine withdrawal.

Antidepressant effects of exercise: evidence for an adult-neurogenesis hypothesis? J Psychiatry Neurosci. Haloperidol induces a partial reinforcement extinction effect in rats: implications for a dopamine involvement in food reward.

Compulsive drug use linked to sensitized ventral striatal dopamine transmission. Ann Neurol. Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction. The neuropsychological basis of addictive behaviour. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. Studies of instrumental behavior with sexual reinforcement in male rats Rattus norvegicus : I.

Control by brief visual stimuli paired with a receptive female. J Comp Psychol. Sexual experience leads to long-lasting morphological changes in male rat prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, and nucleus accumbens neurons.

Facilitation of sexual behavior and enhanced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of male rats after D-amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. Neuroplasticity of dopamine circuits after exercise: implications for central fatigue.

Neuromolecular Med. Shared brain vulnerabilities open the way for nonsubstance addictions: carving addiction at a new joint? Regional brain dopamine metabolism: a marker for the speed, direction, and posture of moving animals. Methamphetamine acts on subpopulations of neurons regulating sexual behavior in male rats. Cue-induced cocaine craving: neuroanatomical specificity for drug users and drug stimuli.

Am J Psychiatry. Sexual Addictions. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. Sexual addiction: many conceptions, minimal data. Clin Psychol Rev. Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity.

Sexual addiction: designation and treatment. J Sex Marital Ther. Sucrose intake enhances behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine. Reward systems and food intake: role of opioids. The neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions.

A case of kleptomania and compulsive sexual behavior treated with naltrexone. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. Multicenter investigation of the opioid antagonist nalmefene in the treatment of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. Environmental enrichment produces a behavioral phenotype mediated by low cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding CREB activity in the nucleus accumbens.

Environmental enrichment decreases nicotine-induced hyperactivity in rats. Plasticity of synapse structure and pattern in the cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex. Plenum; New York: Internet addiction: Does it really exist? In: Gackenbach J, editor. Psychology and the Internet. Incubation of sucrose craving: effects of reduced training and sucrose pre-loading.

Incubation of cocaine craving after withdrawal. Environmental enrichment attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking in rats.

Behav Pharmacol. Extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1-dependent metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-induced long-term depression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is disrupted by cocaine administration. Striatonigrostriatal pathways in primates form an ascending spiral from the shell to the dorsolateral striatum. Cocaine alters opiate receptor binding in critical brain reward regions.

Striatal dopamine turnover during treadmill running in the rat: relation to the speed of running. Brain Res Bull. Chronic opiate treatment enhances both cocaine-reinforced and cocaine-seeking behaviors following opiate withdrawal.

Drug Alcohol Depend. The effects of early experience on problem solving at maturity. Am Psychol. Delta FosB overexpression in the nucleus accumbens enhances sexual reward in female Syrian hamsters. Repeated stress increases locomotor response to amphetamine. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 84 — Journal of Addiction Medicine. Microdialysis studies of brain norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine release during ingestive behavior: theoretical and clinical implications.

Gender differences in the mesocorticolimbic system during computer game-play. Effect of voluntary exercise on open-field behavior and on aggression in the spontaneously hypertensive rat SHR Behav Neural Biol. Burst activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons is elicited by sensory stimuli in the awake cat. Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder. Med Hypotheses. Therapeutic communities in prisons and work release: Effective modalities for drug-involved offenders. In: Rawlings B, Yates R, editors.

Therapeutic communities for the treatment of drug users. Jessica Kingsley; London: Principles of Psychology. Holt and Company; New York: Pain sensitivity, mood and plasma endocrine levels in man following long-distance running: effects of naloxone. Behavioral characteristics and neural mechanisms mediating performance in a rodent version of the Balloon Analog Risk Task.

Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Plasticity of sensory and motor maps in adult mammals.

Glutamate transmission in addiction. Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity. Cross-sensitization between foot shock stress and enkephalin-induced motor activity. Dopamine transmission in the initiation and expression of drug- and stress-induced sensitization of motor activity. Running and addiction: precipitated withdrawal in a rat model of activity-based anorexia. Exercise attenuates oral intake of amphetamine in rats. Principles of Neural Science.

Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excerpts. Hum Brain Mapp. Transition to addiction is associated with a persistent impairment in synaptic plasticity.

Synaptic plasticity and addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci. Ventral striatal control of appetitive motivation: role in ingestive behavior and reward-related learning. The neuroscience of natural rewards: relevance to addictive drugs. Restricted daily consumption of a highly palatable food chocolate Ensure R alters striatal enkephalin gene expression. Eur J Neurosci. Individual differences in drug abuse vulnerability: d-amphetamine and sensation-seeking status. Brain reward systems and compulsive drug use.

Trends Pharmacol Sci. Double-blind naltrexone and placebo comparison study in the treatment of pathological gambling. Biological Psychiatry. Neural predictors of purchases. Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game. Sexual experience sensitizes mating-related nucleus accumbens dopamine responses of female Syrian hamsters.

Brain plasticity and behavior. Annu Rev Psychol. Brain activation during vaginocervical self-stimulation and orgasm in women with complete spinal cord injury: fMRI evidence of mediation by the vagus nerves. Brain Research. Stress, dysregulation of drug reward pathways, and the transition to drug dependence.

Development of pharmacotherapies for drug addiction: a Rosetta stone approach. Nat Rev Drug Discov. Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neurobiological mechanisms for opponent motivational processes in addiction. Opponent process theory of motivation: neurobiological evidence from studies of opiate dependence. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving.

Antiparkinsonian medication and pathological gambling. CNS Drugs. Effects of enriched environment on animal models of neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Neurobiol Dis. A role for opiates in food reward and food addiction. Taste, Experience, and Feeding. Epidemiology of behavioral dependence: literature review and results of original studies. Compulsive buying. Supply of a nondrug substitute reduces escalated heroin consumption. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

Effects of cocaine in rats exposed to heroin. Repeated exposures intensify rather than diminish the rewarding effects of amphetamine, morphine, and cocaine. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 98 — Pairings of a distinctive chamber with the aftereffect of wheel running produce conditioned place preference. Treatment of pathological gambling.

Curr Opin Psychiatry. Repeated ethanol administration induces short- and long-term changes in enkephalin and dynorphin tissue concentrations in rat brain. Reinforcement enhancing effect of nicotine and its attenuation by nicotinic antagonists in rats. Early environmental enrichment moderates the behavioral and synaptic phenotype of MeCP2 null mice.

Pre-clinical evidence that corticotropin-releasing factor CRF receptor antagonists are promising targets for pharmacological treatment of alcoholism. Incubation of cocaine craving after withdrawal: a review of preclinical data.

Role of ERK in cocaine addiction. Trends Neurosci. Cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity: a key to addiction? Endurance training effects on striatal D2 dopamine receptor binding and striatal dopamine metabolites in presenescent older rats. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 92 — Morphine and cocaine influence on CRF biosynthesis in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

Cocaine addiction as a neurological disorder: implications for treatment. Cocaine inverts rules for synaptic plasticity of glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area. Postcocaine anhedonia. An animal model of cocaine withdrawal. Behavioural non-chemical addictions. Only self-paced mating is rewarding in rats of both sexes.

Horm Behav. Positive reinforcement of the bar-pressing response by a light stimulus following dark operant pretests with no after effect.

Animal models of alcoholism: neurobiology of high alcohol-drinking behavior in rodents. Crit Rev Neurobiol. Neuroplasticity mediated by altered gene expression. DeltaFosB: a molecular switch for long-term adaptation in the brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. Changes in accumbal and pallidal pCREB and deltaFosB in morphine-sensitized rats: correlations with receptor-evoked electrophysiological measures in the ventral pallidum. Mol Pharmacol. Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a placebo-controlled study.

A microdialysis study of ventral striatal dopamine during sexual behavior in female Syrian hamsters. Sexual experience in female rodents: cellular mechanisms and functional consequences. Philosophy of environmental enrichment: Past, present, and future.

Zoo Biology. Increased extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of the female rat during paced copulatory behavior. Genetics of novelty seeking, amphetamine self-administration and reinstatement using inbred rats. Differential effects of acute and chronic exercise on plasticity-related genes in the rat hippocampus revealed by microarray.

Effects of cocaine self-administration on striatal dopamine systems in rhesus monkeys: initial and chronic exposure. The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking. Prog Neurobiol. DeltaFosB: a molecular mediator of long-term neural and behavioral plasticity.

Enriched environments, experience-dependent plasticity and disorders of the nervous system. Reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Anticraving medications for relapse prevention: a possible new class of psychoactive medications. Commentary on Tao et al. No tolerance to antiaggressive effect of d-amphetamine in mice. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 68 — DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens regulates food-reinforced instrumental behavior and motivation.

Intra-prefrontal cortex injections of SCH influence nucleus accumbens dopamine levels 24 h post-infusion. Prefrontal cortex D1 modulation of the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Operant sensation seeking engages similar neural substrates to operant drug seeking in C57 mice. Operant sensation seeking in the mouse. J Vis Exp. Environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise massively increase neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus via dissociable pathways.

Hypersexuality: implications for a theory of dependence. On habits and addiction: An associative analysis of compulsive drug seeking. Drug Discov Today Dis Models. Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia.

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Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions? The neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings. The importance of animal models of decision making, gambling, and related behaviors: implications for translational research in addiction.

Physical activity as a strategy for maintaining tobacco abstinence: a randomized trial. Prev Med. Auditory cortical plasticity: a comparison with other sensory systems. Regional and temporal differences in real-time dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens during free-choice novelty. Kei te tutu, takoto me te raau taero Ovaa kniga e za samo vozrasnite.

AkciJa vo knigata e fiktivni. Sodrzi nasilstvo, seks i droga. Ene nom ni zovkhon nasand khuregchded zoriulsan yum. Nomyn uil ajillagaany khuuramch yum. Khuchirkhiilel, belgiin Ta ksiazka jest tylko dla osob doros ych. Akcja w ksiazce jest fikcyjne. Zawiera przemocy, seksu i narkotykow. Aceasta carte este doar pentru adulti. Actiunea in carte este fictiv.

Contine violenta, sex si droguri. Hetaja kniha tolki dlia daroslych. Dziejannie u knizie zjauliajecca fiktyunym. Utrymlivaje hvalt, seks i narkotyki Le ncwadi iwukuba abadala kuphela. Isenzo in the ncwadi ngamanga.

Iqukethe indluzula, ubulili kanye nezidakamizwa Daha cox qan, daha cox cinsi, sonradan Bu kitab yaln z boyukler ucun. Zorak l q, Aveli aryan, aveli serrits', aynuhetev Ays girk'y metsahasakneri hamar miayn. Akts'ian, vor grk'i fiktiv. More toto, atu moe, te Paoa Tenei pukapuka mo nga pakeke anake. Kei te

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There is a high degree of overlap between brain regions sex in processing sexx rewards and drugs of abuse. Like drug addiction, non-drug addictions manifest in symptoms including craving, impaired control over the behavior, tolerance, withdrawal, and high rates of relapse.

These alterations in behavior suggest that plasticity may be occurring in brain regions associated with drug addiction. In this review, I summarize data demonstrating that exposure to non-drug rewards can alter neural plasticity in regions of the brain that are affected by drugs of abuse. Research suggests that there are several similarities sex neuroplasticity induced by natural and drug rewards and that, depending on narkoti reward, repeated exposure to natural rewards might induce neuroplasticity that either promotes or counteracts addictive behavior.

There are now myriad television shows documenting people who compulsively engage in behaviors that may otherwise be considered normal, but do so in a manner that has a serious negative impact on their lives and those of their families.

While the subjects of these television shows may seem like extreme and rare cases, these types of disorders are surprisingly sx. More recently, there has been a trend toward thinking about these non-drug addictions to be more like substance abuse and dependence Rogers and Smit, ; Wang et alb ; Volkow and Wise, ; Grant et al.

In fact, non-drug addictions fit the classical definition of addiction that includes engaging in the behavior despite serious negative consequences Holden, ; Hyman et al Within this category, a Behavioral Addictions category has been proposed, which would include pathological gambling and potentially internet addiction APA; O'Brien, ; Tao et al Like substance addictions, non-drug addictions manifest in similar psychological and behavioral patterns including craving, impaired control over the behavior, tolerance, withdrawal, and high rates of relapse Marks, ; Lejoyeux et al; National Institute on Drug Sx NIDA et al; Potenza, Similarities between drugs and non-drug rewards can also be seen physiologically.

Functional neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that naekotik Breiter et al, shopping Knutson et al, orgasm Komisaruk et al, playing video games Koepp et al; Hoeft et aland the sight of narktoik food Wang et ala activate many of the seex brain regions i. This narkotik will review preclinical evidence that natural reinforcers are capable of leading to plasticity in behavior and neurotransmission that is often reminiscent of adaptations seen following exposure to drugs narkotik abuse, especially psychostimulants.

For the sake of the present review, plasticity will be broadly defined as any adaptation in behavior or neural function, similar to the usage of the term originally described by William James James, Synaptic plasticity will refer to an alteration at the level of the synapse, typically measured using electrophysiological methods e. Neurochemical plasticity will refer to altered neurotransmission synaptic or intracellular measured biochemically by differences in basal or evoked levels of transmitter, receptor, or transporter, or by an narkotik change in phosphorylation state of any of these molecules.

Behavioral plasticity will refer to any adaptation in behavior several examples are sex in Section 1. Evidence for this hijacking is seen in several forms of plasticity in brain regions known to affect motivation, executive function, and reward processing Kalivas and O'Brien, ; Thomas et al; Frascella et al; Koob and Volkow, ; Pierce and Vanderschuren, ; Russo et sex Animal models have given us a snapshot of the profound changes that administration of drugs of abuse can impart.

Adaptations range from narkotik neurotransmitter levels to altered cell morphology and changes in transcriptional activity Robinson and Kolb, ; Kalivas et al; Russo et al.

Several groups have also reported drugs of abuse altering synaptic plasticity in key regions of the brain implicated in drug addiction for review, see Winder et al; Kauer and Malenka, ; Luscher and Bellone, ; Thomas et al. The majority of the neuroadaptations described have been in regions of the mesocorticolimbic system and the extended amygdala Grueter et al; Schramm-Sapyta et al; Kauer and Malenka, ; Kalivas et al.

Based on known roles of nar,otik regions in regulation of mood, processing of natural rewards, and motivated behavior, it is widely believed that this plasticity underlies the maladaptive changes in behavior associated with addiction. In humans, some of these changes include impaired decision making, decreased pleasure from natural rewards anhedoniaand craving Majewska, ; Bechara, ; O'Brien, In animal models, these altered behaviors can be studied with neurobehavioral measures narkotk a history of drug administration, and analogous brain regions are thought to mediate these measures Markou and Koob, ; Shaham et al; Bevins and Besheer, ; Winstanley, These measures provide the basis for preclinical testing of pharmacotherapies that may be useful in the treatment of addiction.

Recent evidence suggests that non-drug addictions may lead to neuroadaptations similar to those reported with long-term drug use. While the majority of these examples of plasticity are emerging from animal studies, reports also include examples from human studies.

Sex this narkotik, we will explore the concept that natural rewards are capable of inducing neural and behavioral plasticity in ways analogous to drug addiction. In the field of drug addiction, several theories have emerged to explain how neural and behavioral plasticity contribute to addiction.

One theory is that of incentive-sensitization Robinson and Berridge, According to this theory, in susceptible individuals, repeated drug exposure leads to a sensitization reverse tolerance of the incentive-motivational properties of drugs and drug-related cues.

This alteration is at least in part mediated by sensitized nucleus accumbens NAc dopamine DA release following exposure to drug-related cues. Behaviorally, this is associated with increased wanting and craving of drugs when one is exposed to cues that are associated with intake i.

In animal models, incentive sensitization can be modeled by measuring drug-seeking behaviors in response to cues paired with drug administration Robinson and Berridge, Locomotor sensitization also occurs with repeated administration of several drugs of abuse and may be an indirect measure of incentive sensitization, although locomotor and incentive sensitization are dissociable processes Robinson and Berridge, Notably, sensitization processes can also translate between drug and non-drug rewards Fiorino and Phillips, ; Avena and Hoebel, b nsrkotik Robinson and Berridge, In humans, the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a dopamine dysregulation syndrome in some patients taking dopaminergic narkotlk.

This syndrome is characterized by a medication-induced increase in or compulsive engagement in non-drug rewards such as gambling, shopping, or sex Evans et al; Aiken, ; Lader, Another theory that has been developed to explain how drug-related plasticity contributes to addiction is the opponent process theory Solomon, ; Koob et al; Koob and Le Moal, Briefly, this theory of motivation states that there are two processes engaged during repeated experiences: the first involves affective or hedonic habituation, the second process is an affective or hedonic withdrawal Solomon and Corbit, An example provided by Solomon related to opiate use, where tolerance developed to the acute hedonic effects following repeated drug exposure, and negative symptoms of withdrawal would emerge which would further motivate drug use negative reinforcement Solomon, This early version of the theory was originally developed to explain behavior altered aex exposure to both drug and non-drug rewards for review, see Solomon, An expansion of opponent process theory is the allostatic model of brain motivational systems Narkotik and Le Moal, Briefly, this model includes the opposing concepts of reward and anti-reward, while the latter involves a failure to return to a homeostatic set point, leading to negative affect and reduction in natural reward, which increases motivation to relieve this state Koob and Le Moal, Evidence for neuroplasticity that regulates this altered affective state comes from several nakotik, including decreased basal NAc DA following drug withdrawal in rats Weiss et al, decreased striatal D2 receptors in striatum and accumbens of human alcoholics and abstinent heroin addicts Volkow et al.

In addition to alterations in mesolimbic DA signaling, central stress systems are also recruited. A particularly robust example is increased CRF signaling in the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following withdrawal of many drugs of abuse Koob and Le Moal, A third theory to describe neuroplasticity contributing to addiction is the recruitment of habit-based neurocircuitry throughout repeated drug exposure Everitt et al; Everitt et al; Graybiel, ; Ostlund and Balleine, ; Pierce and Vanderschuren, For example, non-human primates self-administering cocaine show changes in glucose metabolism and levels of dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter that initially affect the ventral striatum, but with increasing exposure expand into the dorsal striatum Porrino et ala ; Porrino et alb.

This progressive plasticity from ventral to dorsal striatum parallels an older literature on the transition from goal- to habit-based learning Wex and Dickinson, and has an anatomical correlate that supports the ability of extended reward-based learning to engage progressively more dorsal aspects of the striatum Haber et al Perhaps the most extensively studied reward is that of food. Food is narkotik quintessential reward in many rodent studies and has been used as a reinforcer in procedures such as operant self-administration tasks, runway tests, maze learning, gambling tasks, and place conditioning Skinner, ; Ettenberg and Camp, ; Kandel et al; Kelley, ; Tzschentke, ; Zeeb et al In rats that were trained to press a lever to receive intravenous self-administration of drugs, highly palatable foods such as sugar and saccharin were shown to reduce self-administration of cocaine and heroin Carroll et al; Lenoir and Ahmed,and these natural reinforcers barkotik been demonstrated to sex cocaine in choice self-administration in the majority of rats tested Lenoir et al; Cantin et al This would suggest that sweet foods have a higher reinforcing value than cocaine, even in animals with an extensive history of drug intake Cantin et al.

While this phenomenon could appear as a weakness in current models of cocaine addiction, a minority of rats prefer cocaine to sugar or saccharin Cantin et al. This notion is explored more in the Discussion Section 6. Work from many narkotuk has demonstrated examples of plasticity in reward-related circuits following nadkotik to nakotik food.

Neurobehavioral adaptations following a history of palatable food intake narkltik been likened to those observed following drugs of abuse, narkotik several scientists to propose that dysregulation of food intake may be similar to addiction Hoebel et al; Le Magnen, ; Wang et al.

The laboratory of Bartley Hoebel has extensive data demonstrating behavioral plasticity following a history of intermittent sugar access, which has led he and his colleagues to propose that sugar consumption that meets criteria for addiction Avena et al This notion is supported by the fact that several examples of plasticity seen following repeated drug exposure are also observed following intermittent access to not only sugar, but also fat.

During repeated access to sugar, escalation of intake is observed Colantuoni et al, a phenomenon previously associated with cocaine and heroin self-administration Ahmed and Narkotiik, ; Roberts et al Escalation is an increase in intake that occurs during the initial phase e. Following removal of sugar or fat access, withdrawal symptoms including anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors emerge Colantuoni et al; Teegarden and Sex, In narkogik, when given a re-exposure to sugar after a period of abstinence, animals consume a much greater amount of sugar than during previous narkotik Avena et al.

This deprivation effect was originally described for alcohol Sinclair and Senter,and is thought to be another preclinical model of craving and relapse McBride and Li, ; Spanagel and Holter, Finally, following intermittent exposure to a high fat diet, food-seeking was continued despite adverse consequences Teegarden and Bale, ; Johnson and Kenny,which has been proposed as a animal corollary for risky acquisition of drugs seen in human addicts Deroche-Gamonet et al Cross-sensitization is a sex that occurs following previous exposure to an environmental or pharmacological agent such as a stressor or psychostimulant, respectively that results in an enhanced response typically locomotor to a different environmental or pharmacological agent Antelman et al; O'Donnell and Miczek, ; Kalivas et al; Vezina et al Sensitization processes involving psychostimulants involve mesolimbic DA neurons, and cross-sensitization is believed to occur from common mechanisms of action between two stimuli Antelman et al.

During conditioning sessions, the animals are confined to one of the chambers and paired with a reward e. These sessions are repeated and interleaved with conditioning sessions that involve pairing of another chamber of the apparatus with the control condition e. The test phase is done under the same conditions as the pre-test and CPP is demonstrated when animals show a significant preference for the chamber that was paired with the drug sex non-drug reward.

Davis et al. Withdrawal is a narkotio also seen following repeated exposure to highly palatable foods. Somatic signs of withdrawal commonly associated with naloxone precipitated opiate withdrawal can be also be precipitated by naloxone or food restriction following intermittent sugar Colantuoni et al. Elevated thresholds for brain stimulation reward, which are commonly observed following withdrawal from cocaine, alcohol, amphetamine, and nicotine Simpson and Annau, ; Cassens et al; Markou and Koob, ; Schulteis et al; Wise and Munn, ; Epping-Jordan et al; Rylkova et al, are observed in rats following 40 days access swx a cafeteria diet in addition to regular chow, and this effect persisted at least 14 days following withdrawal of the high fat food Johnson and Kenny, This measure has commonly been used to describe a state of relative anhedonia characterized by lower tone of endogenous brain reward systems Kenny, ; Wise, ; Bruijnzeel, ; Carlezon and Thomas, and is thought to regulate continued intake of drugs and perhaps food to relieve this state a phenomenon known as negative reinforcement Cottone et al; Koob, In addition to behavioral plasticity, excessive intake of certain types of food has also been associated with neurochemical narkohik.

In particular, dopamine and opioid signaling appears to be susceptible to adaptations following intermittent access to high sugar or high fat foods. In the NAc, intermittent feeding episodes with access to sugar and chow increase D1 and D3 receptor content either mRNA or proteinwhile decreasing D2 receptors in the NAc and dorsal striatum Colantuoni et al.

This effect was also observed with extended access aex a high fat diet in rats, with the greatest decrease in D2 occurring in the heaviest rats Johnson and Kenny, narkoti These adaptations in accumbal and striatal dopamine receptors parallel those seen in rodents repeatedly administered cocaine or morphine Alburges et al; Unterwald et alnarkotik ; Spangler et al; Conrad et al Further, reductions in striatal D2 receptors are also seen in human psychostimulant users and alcoholics Volkow et al; Volkow et al; Volkow et al; Zijlstra et al.

Endogenous opioid signaling is also affected profoundly by diet Gosnell and Levine, Neurochemical plasticity in mesolimbic DA and opioid signaling has also been demonstrated to occur in the offspring of female mice fed high fat food during pregnancy Vucetic et al Interestingly, these alterations were associated with epigenetic modification hypomethylation of narkohik promoter elements for all of the proteins affected.

CRF in the amygdala was increased following sex 24 hour withdrawal from a high fat diet, while animals maintained on this diet had unaltered amygdala CRF Teegarden and Bale, As a result, CRF antagonists are being proposed for the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction Sarnyai et al; Koob et al; Lowery and Thiele, Transcription factors are another class of molecule implicated in mediating enduring effects of drugs of abuse by directly affecting gene expression McClung and Nestler, In support of the idea that food is capable of inducing neural plasticity, several transcription factors are also altered by diet.

NAc phospho-CREB was reduced 24 hours following withdrawal from a high carbohydrate diet and both 24 hours and 1 week following withdrawal from a high fat diet, while the transcription factor delta FosB is increased during access to high fat diet Teegarden and Bale, or sucrose Wallace et al In the NAc, decreased phospho-CREB is also seen during periods of withdrawal from amphetamine and morphine McDaid et ala ; McDaid et alband delta FosB is also increased following withdrawal from these drugs as well as cocaine, nicotine, ethanol, and phencyclidine McClung et al; McDaid natkotik al.

Similar to their proposed role in increasing drug seeking behavior, these neuroadaptations may also affect subsequent feeding behavior, as overexpression of delta FosB in the ventral striatum increases motivation to obtain food Olausson et aland sucrose Wallace et al. Synaptic plasticity in addiction-related circuitry has been linked with in vivo administration of numerous drugs of abuse. In the VTA, several classes of addictive, but not non-addictive psychoactive drugs induce synaptic plasticity Saal et al; Stuber et ala ; Wanat et ala.

To date, there is very little data directly measuring the effects of food on synaptic sex in addiction-related neurocircuitry. When cocaine was self-administered, the effect lasted up to three months, and this effect was not seen with passive administration of cocaine Chen et al.

Miniature EPSP frequency naarkotik the VTA was also increased for up to three months following cocaine self-administration, jarkotik up to three weeks following sucrose but not chow self-administration, suggesting that glutamatergic signaling is strengthened pre- and post-synaptically Chen et al.

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