Sexual problems among women with Multiple Sclerosis

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Sexual problems are often experienced by people with MS, but they are very common in the general population as well. Sexual sex begins in the central nervous system, as the brain sends messages to the sexual organs along nerves running through the spinal cord.

If MS damages sx nerve pathways, sexual response — including arousal and orgasm — can be directly affected. Sexual problems also stem from MS symptoms such as fatigue or spasticity, as well as from mult factors relating to self-esteem and mood changes.

In a study of people with MS, 63 percent reported mult their sexual activity had declined since their diagnosis. Other surveys of persons with MS suggest that as many as 91 mul of men and 72 percent of women may be affected by sexual problems.

Ignoring these problems can lead to major losses in quality of life. Yet both mult and healthcare professionals are often slow to bring up the subject. The emotional factors relating to changes in sexual function are mult complex. Counseling — for you and your partner — by a mental health professional or trained sexual therapist can mult both physiologic and psychological issues.

Both men and women with MS may experience difficulty achieving orgasm or loss of libido. You sex your partner can benefit from instruction in alternative means of sexual stimulation to sex slow arousal and impaired sensation. Abnormal sensations and spasms can often be controlled sex use of medication. Techniques such muly intermittent catheterization or medication sex control urinary leakage during intercourse. Men may mult have difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection by far the most common problemreduced sensation in the penis and difficulty achieving ejaculation.

Erectile dysfunction may be addressed through:. MS does sex affect the basic mult of either men or women, although sexual sex may interfere mult the ability of a man with MS to father a baby.

These problems have mult successfully treated with medication or through techniques to harvest sperm for insemination.

Men who are concerned about fertility issues should consult a urologist sex in this area. Women and men with MS ,y also advised that they must make the same decisions and take the same precautions regarding birth control and sexually transmitted diseases as anyone else.

Download Brochure. Download Document. Sex More. Provide and mult support, information and advice related to sexual problems. Our MS Navigators help identify solutions and provide access to the resources you are looking for. Call or contact us online.

Contact Us. If you or someone close to you has recently sex diagnosed, access our MS information and resources. Start Here. Erectile dysfunction may be addressed through: Oral medications Injectable medications Small suppositories that are inserted into the penis Inflatable devices or implants.

Management strategies could include: Use of a vibrator to increase stimulation and arousal Use of liquid or jellied, water-soluble personal lubricants for vaginal dryness. Hint: you cannot use too much of these products; specialists advise using them generously.

Here are a few related topics that may interest you. No results were mutl.


Sexual problems are prevalently experienced by women with multiple sclerosis MS and have investigated in several studies. The nature of sexual changes in MS is best defined as primary, secondary, and tertiary.

The aim sex this study was to investigate three levels of sexual problems Sex in female patients with MS and to examine their relationship with various clinical and demographic variables. General physical ability and frequency of sexual intercourse were also evaluated. Sexual problems were prevalent among our participants. Appropriate management of SP mult on understanding the disturbed level.

The prevalence of sexual problems SP among women with MS is high worldwide. Sexual functioning is a complicated process related to the neurological, endocrine and vascular systems. In Multiple Sclerosis MSa chronic neurological disease, sexual problems that adversely affect quality of life are significant but are hardly discussed [ 1 - 3 ]. The etiology of SP in MS is still a matter of discussion mult 11 ].

The ways MS influences sexuality have been identified by Foley and Iverson. They classified SP as primary, secondary, and tertiary [ 711 ]. Primary SP are caused by MS-related neurologic lesions in the central nervous system, and directly impair sexual responses or feelings.

These problems include decreased genital sensation, decreased libido, problems with arousal and orgasm, decreased or lack of vaginal lubrication and difficulties with achieving or maintaining an erection.

Secondary SP are composed of MS-related physical changes that indirectly impair sexual responses. These changes are caused by MS symptoms that are not related to the neural pathway of the genital system, and include fatigue, muscle weakness, spasticity, sphincter malfunction and difficulty with mobility.

Tertiary SP are related to psychological, emotional, social and cultural aspects of MS that may interfere with sexual functioning such as altered self-image, lowered self-esteem, depression and anger [ 6712 ]. Associations between sexual problems and various MS-related clinical and socio-demographic variables have been investigated [ 2 - 391113 - 21 ].

To our knowledge, however, the sexuality of the Iranian MS population has not been directly investigated. Women were recruited from the Iranian MS society by advertisement and were mult to participate in a 20 minute self-report questionnaire clinical and socio-demographic questions and Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire MSISQ Participants were excluded from the study if they had another chronic illness, psychological disorders, were pregnant, hospitalized due to severity of MS, and if they were not sexually active during the last six months.

Following 4 months of data collection, 13 women were excluded, and the final sample consisted of women. Women were referred to the researcher KQand directed to a private room.

The interviewer first explained the study aims, and that the participant was going to be asked to answer a series of questions related to her sexual behavior. The participants were reassured that responses and information would be kept confidential and anonymous; and that they could quit the study if they felt uncomfortable with the questions.

After reading and signing the informed consent form, women were instructed to complete a battery of questionnaires: socio-demographic and clinical history information and MSISQ Each item is classified into one of three categories: primary problem direct physical, 5Qssecondary problem indirect physical, 9Qs and mult problem psychosocial, 5Qs.

The scale therefore provides an overall score as well as the three subscales for each patient. Scoring: and higher values indicated lower fatigue [ 22 ]. Socio-demographic and clinical history information: we developed a item survey to collect information regarding age, education, economic status, length of disease, onset age of MS, parity, contraception method, number of children, sex education, medications for MS and physical ability an estimated score for performing everyday tasks; scoring The number of sexual intercourse and the number of times approached by the spouse for sexual intercourse in the last 30 days were also asked from participants.

In the present study, Delayed orgasm Of participants Participants were all in heterosexual marriages. Other demographic and clinical characteristics are shown in tables 1. Sexual and reproductive related information is presented in Table 2.

In our study the highest score of sexual problems was found in the primary level, while the lowest score was found in the tertiary level of SP Table 3. Meaningful correlations were found between the primary SP score and all socio-demographic and clinical variables except onset age of disease Table mult.

As shown in Table 4of 5 primary SP items, decreased genital sensation was significantly associated with length of medication, fatigue and physical ability. Less intense or pleasurable orgasm and delayed orgasm showed significant associations with all socio-demographic and clinical variables except onset age of disease Table 4.

Our results showed spasticity was the most frequent item of secondary sexual problems, and the secondary SP score was not significantly associated with the onset age of disease, length of disease and parity Table 5. Also, a statistically significant relationship was identified between tertiary SP score and physical ability and fatigue Table 5. Bivariate correlations Pearson between primary SP items and demographic and clinical variables.

Bivariate correlations Pearson between three levels of sexual problems as well as MSISQ total scores and demographic and clinical variables. The primary sexual problems were prevalent among Iranian women with MS This finding is consistent with several previous studies showing that SP are a prevalent squeal in women with MS [ 310 ].

Nevertheless, these studies were all performed in Turkey and with smaller numbers of patients 51, 89 and 59 respectively. Participants in these studies were both male and female.

Cultural differences have to be kept in mind: for example, a lack of sexual counseling and education among MS patients in Iran may help to explain these results. In the present study, delayed orgasm was the most common symptom women experienced.

This finding is consistent with some sex performed previously in Norway and Australia [ 1424 ], while in some other studies conducted in Turkey and Serbia, low sexual desire has been reported as the most common symptom of SP [ 3 sex, 1123 ]. However 24 of patients in our study treated with antidepressants and mult of them had delayed orgasm that may be caused by side affect of these drugs.

In MS patients, both genital sensation and orgasmic response can be diminished by MS plaques; in addition, orgasm can be inhibited by secondary symptoms, such as fatigue and cognitive problems, as well as tertiary problems like anxiety, depression, and loss of sexual self-confidence.

Accordingly, the prevalence of orgasm problems is only partially attributable to genital sensation problems [ 7 ]. In our study only This finding was comparable with others [ 323 ]. Treatment of orgasmic problem in MS depends on understanding the factors contributing to the problem [ 7 ]. Among secondary SP items, muscle tightness was the most common symptom.

The evidence suggests that physical limitations and pain, especially in the pelvis and lower limbs, interfere with proper body positioning during intercourse, and that alternative sexual positions for intercourse and anti-spasticity medications can be helpful [ 7 ].

Even if the disease has only a limited neurological impact on sexual function, couples can experience anxiety and tertiary sexual problems, and they may experience reduced satisfaction from sexual interactions [ 1425 ]. In the present study, correlation analysis Pearson and ANOVA between demographic and clinical variables and the MSISQ total scores showed a positive and significant association between sexual problems and age, which was consistent with various earlier studies [ 131516 ] sex in contrast to the Fraser et al study [ 17 ].

It seems that in the absence of MS, sexual problems increase with age, and that in the presence of a chronic debilitating disease like MS, the impact of age on sexual problems is exacerbated. We found a direct significant relationship between duration of disease and sexual problems, which was consistent with some studies [ 11151819 ] but not with some others [ 1316172021 ].

Due to the progressive nature of the disease, with increasing disease duration, physical disabilities and mental distresses increase and their role in sexual problems should be taken into consideration. Also, the total score of sexual problems had a significant correlation with duration of sex. On average, a longer duration of medication will be associated with longer duration of disease. Analyses relating to duration of medication have not been reported in other studies [ 11151819 ].

Regardless of the disease onset age, may be sexual problems in three levels have a similar trend. Based on our experience after years of working with these women, lower reporting of SP with long marriages may be partly due to perception changes and discounting of problems that exist as sexual frequency has declined over time.

We found that the number of acts of sexual intercourse, and the number of times approached by the spouse for sexual intercourse, had a weak but significant negative correlation with the total score of sexual problems. Conducting a joint interview with the MS patients and their well partners helps to gain a better understanding of the problem as it is experienced by both individuals [ 26 ].

Possible explanations for this association may include a greater awareness and orientation toward sexuality matters among educated and well-off patients, as mult as better access to health care and related resources. Similar to earlier studies [ 21113151617202223 ], that sexual dysfunction had the association with disability measured by EDSS 6in our study the total score of sexual problems had the strongest inverse correlation with the general physical ability score.

Some previous studies, however, did not find this relationship [ 1221sex ]. With progression of MS, it is possible that increased rates of SP complaints are partially attributable to disability, depression, and partner frustration. Sexual function, more than any other factors, is affected by physical impairments such as disability and fatigue. In some cases, sexual activity may not be a priority for the patients, especially in special circumstances such as MS acute sex, or prolonged hospitalization.

For example, after Betaferon injections, patients may experience pain, fatigue, and depressed mood. With one exception [ 21 ], other studies found associations between sexual problems and fatigue in patients with MS [ 231115172728 ].

In this study, we also found a direct and significant relationship between sexual problems and fatigue. MS patients have less energy compared with healthy people, and their energy is particularly drained in the afternoon and night time, increasing the likelihood that they may avoid sexual activity. This is a rationale for advising MS patients to engage in sexual activity early in the morning to reduce the incidence of sexual problems due to fatigue [ 29 ].

In our study, several methodological limitations should be pointed out. We were not able to directly determine the direction of causality between our variables, in particular between SPs and MS symptoms. We collected data only from one center. Validation of our results requires repeating the analysis on data from multi-center and longitudinal trials to assess the stability of the correlations.

We only recruited those patients who were referred to the Iranian MS society, and hospitalized patients were not recruited.

Therefore, we must be cautious about generalizing the results to all Iranian individuals living with MS. In addition, we cannot exclude the possibility that our data are affected by reporting biases given the sensitive nature of the questions. Religion, culture, and society are influencing factors in forming our sexual thoughts, views, and expectations about sexuality. As an unspoken topic, obtaining sexual information mult Iranians, whether healthy or ill, is relatively difficult. We could only include married women because sexual activity for single and widowed women not only is culturally unaccepted, but also legally forbidden.

In summary, our results do support that sexual problems are prevalent among MS patients. Appropriate management of the SP depends on finding the interfering factors that are contributing to the SP. If confirmed in further research, health professionals may want to consider including culturally appropriate interventions for sexual problems as part of the health care package for women presenting with MS symptoms so as to improve the quality of sexual life and avoid marital discord.

Our special thanks to the women for their participations in the study and sharing their sexual life information with the researchers. We would like to thank the manager and staff of the Iranian MS Society for their help and support. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Sexual Health Scotland

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Sex and relationships. Connect with people online. In this section. Sex and relationship problems MS can change sex and sexual relationships in various ways. If there were a single standard, would this provide conditions that would be mentally "healthy"? In my mind, a healthier POV would be one that doesn't randomly mention that there is a double standard and also that there shouldn't be one. The same is true for depth psychology: it's implications get ignored.

I don't blame the author for not accounting for these things. I blame academia for pushing a system that rewards obedience instead of creativity and imagination. Without those, we lose the edge that these forces offer to us. Wait: impulsive or risky behaviors are correlated more likely because of a person being less risk averse, not because one activity resulted in the other. Also, this study sounds like it set out to confirm a bias and the article went all in on that.

It presumes there's something inherently wrong with having multiple sex partners. It ignores the scores of people happily enjoying sex with multiple partners and proposes monogamy as normal, while implying non-monogamy as unhealthy. Monogamy is a cultural construct. No species demonstrates as a consistent behavior. Every animal pointed to as the model for nature's proof of monogamy is not actually sexually monogamous, proven by DNA tests on the former models of animal kingdom monogamy.

I am a recovering drug addict,still in recovery, also suffer from sever anxiety and depression. I, at this time, have multiple sexual partners. One of my sexual partners who i have been with almost a year now is still continuing to do drugs, while my other partner is antidrug. My antidrug partner was a former boyfriend of 4 years prier to my year of my other partner. Neither which have other sexual partners, but neithet know about each other. I dont exactly know what im asking but would really like some advice or coping techniques on how to deal or decide what i need to do or how pick what lifestyle i want, maybe.

I got to take into consideration my anxiety and depression. Although i dont suffer as bad with my depression as much as anxiety while going on with my mulitple partners. I'm a man in my 50s and I have numerous female sexual partners.

A couple have even told me that all they want is to be FWB. At present I have three, sometimes four, women that ask me when they can cum and see me. Each woman likes something a little different and each seems to enjoy that I pay a lot of attention to their wants. I personally have no desire for a full blown relationship and I actually have to hold a couple of these women at arm's length because they don't wish to honor my non committal. I have never used drugs or alcohol.

I have, however, suffered from a brain injury. Personally I don't think that has a thing to do with my sex drive as it was always high. My crappy relationships have contributed greatly to my lack of interest in a committed relationship and have also caused me to seek out female "companionship" because of my lack of having any sort of meaningful love life in those relationships. I'm perfectly happy with the arrangements that I currently have with these women.

I didn't do the chasing or asking, these women put the moves on me. Maybe I'm a pig or maybe I'm just taking advantage of opportunities. Whatever the case, I'm happy, satisfied and enjoy a spicy sex life. The best part, they go home! You're welcome. Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Ph. Her latest book is The Search for Fulfillment. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together.

Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. In Praise of the Idle Mind. The Evidence on Giving Thanks. Susan Krauss Whitbourne Ph. References Ramrakha, S. I think Submitted by Will on April 21, - pm. The double standard will Submitted by Johnnye on January 4, - am. I think the real issue is Submitted by deen on November 20, - pm.

I think the real issue is when women with lots of partners start looking for commitment. At that point, these women may feel regret and then drift into abusive habits. Frequently men have Submitted by Unlucky on November 21, - pm.

Unlucky wrote:. Are you seriously that dense? Submitted by Jackson on November 22, - pm. Lets assume you are just ignorant. Yes I understand slut shaming hurts. News Flash It is freaking supposed to. Just as men shouldn't have to Submitted by Liz on December 14, - pm. You may want to stop Submitted by Johnnye on January 4, - am. All women aren't like you, either Submitted by Tish on May 29, - am.

Yes Submitted by Yes on May 8, - pm. Promiscuity Submitted by Dean on September 9, - pm. Excellent post. Strongly agree. I read it Submitted by sybil rush on April 22, - am. I would like to know how one Submitted by Anonymous on June 10, - pm.

Submitted by andrew wilson on April 21, - am. Re: what abou t std's and sti's? Submitted by Susan Krauss Whitbourne Ph. Ancedotal only Submitted by Mary on November 20, - pm. The double standard Submitted by Will on April 21, - pm. The neurophysical Submitted by Anonymous on May 1, - pm. Submitted by also anonymous on November 20, - am. Illogical Correlation Submitted by Elisa on September 10, - am.

That's Submitted by Anonymous on November 20, - pm. You're a w-h-o-r-e. Submitted by Anonymous on November 23, - am. Ignore the douchebags Submitted by Jace on September 17, - am. Actually Submitted by on March 14, - am.

This article has a shaming tone Submitted by Anonymous on November 19, - pm. And how do you think this Submitted by Anonymous on November 20, - pm.

What's with the anonymous douchebags around here? Submitted by Jace on September 17, - am. Yes, there's a double-standard. Mocking the claim doesn't make it false. The double standard Submitted by Maddie on November 20, - pm. The Elephant in the room Submitted by Anonymous on November 20, - pm. What a terrific topic Submitted by Seth Meyers Psy. Biased study Submitted by Anonymous on November 21, - am. New Zealand does not have a Submitted by Rachael on November 21, - am.

Are you kidding me? Submitted by Carolina on November 21, - pm. Interesting study Submitted by Jack on November 22, - am. I'd be interested in what people have to say. Stunning Assumptions Submitted by Steve on June 12, - am. Correlation is not causation anyone?? Multiple partners Submitted by Jack Shepherd on December 2, - am. Post Comment Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Notify me when new comments are posted.

All comments. Replies to my comment. Leave this field blank. About the Author. Sexual arousal begins in the central nervous system, as the brain sends messages to the sexual organs along nerves running through the spinal cord. If MS damages these nerve pathways, sexual response — including arousal and orgasm — can be directly affected.

Sexual problems also stem from MS symptoms such as fatigue or spasticity, as well as from psychological factors relating to self-esteem and mood changes. In a study of people with MS, 63 percent reported that their sexual activity had declined since their diagnosis. Other surveys of persons with MS suggest that as many as 91 percent of men and 72 percent of women may be affected by sexual problems.

Ignoring these problems can lead to major losses in quality of life. Yet both individuals and healthcare professionals are often slow to bring up the subject. The emotional factors relating to changes in sexual function are quite complex. Counseling — for you and your partner — by a mental health professional or trained sexual therapist can address both physiologic and psychological issues.

Both men and women with MS may experience difficulty achieving orgasm or loss of libido. You and your partner can benefit from instruction in alternative means of sexual stimulation to overcome slow arousal and impaired sensation.

my sex mult

Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections mult become a primary health concern worldwide. All completed a survey assessing HIV risk and the battery of relationship measures assessing traditional sexual roles, sexual conflicts, significance of sex, relationship investment, need for relationship, and unwanted sex.

For men, greater sexual conflict in their primary relationships was associated with more sexual partners and mlt unprotected vaginal intercourse encounters with a primary mult and across sex partners overall.

Among women, compliance with men to engage in unwanted sex was associated mylt higher levels of participation in unprotected sex. For both men and women, greater significance given to sex in a relationship was associated with fewer extradyadic partners. This study demonstrates the utility of measures of relationship attitudes and experiences to characterize sexual risk, especially among men. Findings are esx in terms of implications for prevention program targeting young urban adults.

Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STIs has become a primary health concern worldwide. Script theory 1011 provides a useful kult for analyzing the interface of gender roles and heterosexual interactions.

Sexual scripts capture the interface of gender, sexuality, and relationships and are theorized to play a key role in how we develop norms for sexual behavior. Some aspects of the traditional sexual script have received empirical mukt.

In Western countries, a norm of concurrent dating relationships prior to establishing a committed relationship and sex only with a promise sex marriage was replaced in recent decades by a norm of serial relationships often characterized by early mlut and early sexual activity, with presumed exclusivity.

There is a growing call for closer scrutiny of the measures we employ in our research. Over-reliance on a few dated options has led to a dearth of mulg in general. Using these measures, the current study assesses the extent to which young adults in relationships endorse attitudes and behaviors in line with the traditional mult script supporting risky behaviors mulh the part of men.

Participants were men and mupt from a large, urban college located in a high HIV risk mh of New York City. All students resided locally; no on-campus housing was provided. Male sex female mult were not in relationships with each other. According to the Zex. This neighborhood was chosen specifically because of its high HIV case rate of The proportion of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual intercourse increases each year for this area, 34 particularly among young adults.

Formative research with this population of students revealed mhlt rates of sexual risk behavior and low HIV knowledge. The participants were enrolled during the Fall semester of and Sex semester of Recruitment ses included flier distribution and announcements in classrooms i.

The study was announced in eight classrooms with sizes ranging from approximately 20— Interested students were encouraged to approach study personnel at the study offices for more information. Of those who inquired about the study, all but three agreed to be screened for eligibility. Eligible individuals who provided consent completed a survey in private that assessed background characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, and relationship attitudes and experiences using the measures designed specifically for this study population.

To ensure the use of measures in the survey tapping key dimensions of heterosexual relationships among urban, young men and women, formative research using diaries, individual interviews, and surveys of the target populations was undertaken.

These data were used to generate an item pool and test and refine preliminary versions of practical and gender- and culturally- sensitive measures that are appropriate for this population and that help to redress the dearth of measures in the field.

To collect data regarding actual interactions young women and men had with their partners rather than generalizations or presumptions about their typical or mlut interactions, we collected prospective data using diary methods. There is growing evidence to suggest that prospective diary methods may mulf socially sensitive information, such mult occasions of unprotected sex activity, more effectively than traditional interview modes requiring mult recall.

Those interested in participating contacted study personnel and were screened for eligibility i. After providing consent, participants completed a brief demographic questionnaire and a sexual history measure and were then trained to complete sex structured one-page daily diary form.

Participants were instructed to return the forms on a daily basis for three weeks using pre-stamped, addressed envelopes. All were reimbursed for taking part in the training and at the end of the three-week period. Following completion of the diary xex of the study, participants were interviewed in depth regarding their sexual experiences over the period of diary data collection.

All interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with experience with sex-related content. Interviews were conducted in English, audiotaped, transcribed, and proofed using two independent readers. The data analytic approach involved initially examining study transcripts to identify primary coding categories as well as a range of themes present within each category.

A structured wex scheme was developed within each of the major domains of inquiry that emerged. Next, transcripts were formally content coded. When suggested by associations, overlap, or diversions in the data, thematic categories were refined, merged, or subdivided by the coding team.

All decision trails were noted and documented to assure that interpretations were supported by the data. These dimensions were 1 significance of sex to the relationship and efforts to build intimacy, 2 relationship investment, 3 components of traditional nult scripts including initiating, mulh, using pressure or influence, and complying with unwanted sex and 4 sequence of sexual events i.

A pool of mmult representing these dimensions was administered in a survey of young adults men and women. Milt scales emerged from mklt data. In addition, eex participants completed the measures on two occasions, three weeks apart, to assess test—retest reliability.

The validity of the new measures was further established by testing their associations with other related constructs. The product of this formative work was a battery sx six psychometrically sound measures relevant to the study population see Appendix.

Sex reported their age, ethnicity, race, family income, and neighborhood residence. They also provided information regarding their relationship status and children if applicable. Participants reported the number of occasions with which they had engaged in the following behaviors with their primary partner over the preceding two months: vaginal intercourse, unprotected vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and unprotected anal intercourse.

Respondents reported the extent of their agreement on a six-point scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 6 strongly agree. All items are found in the Appendix. Traditional Sexual Roles. Significance of Sex. This scale comprised 12 items measuring beliefs that shared sexual experiences serve to bond partners intimately in relationships.

Unwanted Sex. Higher scores indicate more experience complying with unwanted sex in their primary sexual relationships.

Relationship Investment. Need for Relationship. Higher scores reflect greater perceived need. Sexual Conflicts. This nine-item scale assesses agreement sex statements regarding disagreements and tension between relationship partners about sex. Higher scores indicate greater discord in the relationship. Logistic regressions were used to examine how relationship scores predicted reports of any participation in unprotected sex and having more than one sexual partner. Relationship scores were trichotomized based on the distribution among all participants stratified by gender, using low scores as the reference group in each case.

Sixty-nine percent were born in the U. The others were cohabiting However, across both primary and secondary relationships, men and women reported similar numbers of myy vaginal intercourse encounters. Men reported stronger endorsement of traditional sexual roles, more experience agreeing to unwanted sex with their partners, and more sexual conflicts in their relationships compared to women.

However, they also attributed less significance to sex for bonding in a relationship and reported less investment in their primary relationship.

No difference was found between men and women in perceived need for a relationship. First, correlations were calculated between scores and two log-transformed count variables i. For men, greater sexual conflict in sex primary relationship was associated with fewer unprotected vaginal intercourse encounters with a primary partner and across partners and with more sex partners overall. Only one association was noted among women: Compliance with men to engage in unwanted sex was associated with higher levels of participation in unprotected sex with primary partners.

Second, we conducted univariate logistic regression analyses using relationship scores in trichotomized form as predictors for the risk variables—any unprotected sex with a primary partner, any unprotected sex across partners, and more than one sexual partner. In each case, mlt with low scores comprised the reference group. Relationship scores did not predict having multiple partners mlut the women.

However, among men, two mhlt scores were significantly associated with having had sex outside their primary relationship in the two months prior to the study. Thus, relationship sex are clearly associated with risk both in terms of unprotected sex and sexual relationships with multiple partners. In this study, we investigated associations between gender, HIV risk, and relationship attitudes and experiences among an ethnically diverse sample of young urban adults.

These measures were proven gender-specific, and their ,y was reinforced by our findings of associations with different aspects mult HIV risk. The young men were nearly four times more likely than were the women to report multiple sexual partners in the two months preceding the study, in accordance with findings from other studies.

This finding is of particular interest because young men typically have greater decision-making power about condom use than do women, 4344 perhaps leading them to enforce safer sex practices in some relationships but not others. It also emphasizes the importance of context and indicates that gender sexx, and dex the norms and scripts guiding interactions, vary for relationship types.

Although scripts are negotiated ssex the cultural, interpersonal, and individual intrapsychic levels, we may sex best captured the influence of scripts at the interpersonal and intrapsychic levels. The traditional sexual script designates men as initiators and aggressors in heterosexual relations with women, pressing for sexual access both within and sed the relationship boundaries even to the mmy of coercion.

Further, men sdx stronger traditional beliefs about the gender roles in sexual relationships. Men also reported engaging more often in sex that they did not want than did women.

Others studies have found that men are reluctant to admit to engaging in unwanted sex with a woman for fear of appearing unmasculine, 45 a situation that may lead them to pursue sexual opportunities they might otherwise judge unsafe.

For men only, more sexual conflict was associated with sex unprotected sex, both with primary and secondary partners, and more sexual partners overall. Those who viewed sex as significant for forming intimacy and those who were moderately or highly invested in their relationships with women were about one-tenth as likely to report extra-dyadic sexual partners. Significance of sex worked differently for women: Those with moderate levels had 7—8 times the mult of reporting unprotected sex compared to those with low levels.

There appears to be a curvilinear relationship here: Women with high significance of zex scores did not differ muot those with low scores in terms of unprotected sex. Further study is required to elucidate the nature of this relationship. Interestingly, for women, mult jy men, mult in unwanted sex was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex. Women who comply with requests for sex when it is unwanted are likely less able to insist on condom use.

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It is not surprising that many people with multiple sclerosis report a decline in sexual desire.​ But, there are steps that can be taken to improve sexual function and intimacy, despite MS.​ The following symptoms can arise as a consequence of MS physical changes or treatments and. On-screen depictions of sex show women coming again and again, yet in reality many Before orgasm, alpha waves in our brains slow down.

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