Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, including within the same species. Common mating or reproductively motivated systems include monogamypolygynypolyandrypolygamy and promiscuity.
Other sexual behaviour may be reproductively motivated e. When animal sexual behaviour is reproductively motivated, it is often termed mating or copulation ; for most non-human mammalsmating and copulation occur at oestrus the most fertile period in the mammalian female's reproductive cyclewhich increases the chances of successful impregnation. Females often select males for mating only if they appear strong and able to protect themselves. The male that wins a fight may also have the chance to mate with a larger number of females and will therefore pass on his genes to their offspring.
Historically, it was believed that only humans and a small number of other species performed sexual acts other than for reproduction, and sex animals' sexuality was instinctive mals a simple " stimulus-response " behaviour.
However, in addition to homosexual behaviours, a range of species masturbate and may use objects as tools to help them do mals. Sexual behaviour may be tied more strongly to establishment and maintenance of complex social bonds across a population which support its success in non-reproductive ways. Both reproductive maals non-reproductive behaviours can be related to expressions of dominance over another animal or survival within a stressful situation such as sex due to duress or coercion.
In sociobiology and behavioural ecologythe term "mating system" is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behaviour. The mating system specifies which males mate with which females, and under what circumstances. There are four basic systems:. Monogamy occurs when one male sex with one female exclusively. A monogamous mating sex is one in which individuals form long-lasting pairs and cooperate in raising offspring.
These pairs may last for a lifetime, such as in pigeons or it may occasionally change from one mating season to another, such mals in emperor penguins. Zoologists and biologists now have evidence that monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive. Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with extra-pair partners.
Sometimes, these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring. Genetic tests frequently show that some of the offspring raised by a monogamous pair come from the female mating with an extra-pair male partner.
Mmals monogamy refers to a male and female's social living arrangement e. In humans, social monogamy takes the form of monogamous marriage. Sexual monogamy is sexx as an exclusive sexual relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions.
Finally, the term genetic sex is used when DNA analyses can confirm that a female-male pair reproduce exclusively with each other. A combination of terms indicates examples where levels of relationships coincide, e. Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous sex not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous. Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations.
Social monogamy is relatively rare in the animal kingdom. The actual incidence of social monogamy varies greatly across different branches of the evolutionary tree. Sexual monogamy is also rare among animals. Many socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulationsmaking them sexually non-monogamous.
The incidence of genetic monogamy, determined by DNA fingerprinting, varies widely across species. But genetic monogamy mmals strikingly low in other species. Barash and Lipton note:. The highest known frequency of extra-pair copulations are found among the fairy-wrenslovely tropical creatures technically known as Malurus splendens and Malurus cyaneus. Such low levels of genetic monogamy have surprised biologists and zoologists, forcing them mals rethink the role of social monogamy in evolution.
They can no longer assume xex monogamy determines how genes are distributed in a species. The lower the rates of genetic monogamy among socially monogamous pairs, the less of a role social monogamy plays mls determining how genes are distributed among offspring. Polygyny occurs when one male gets exclusive mating rights with multiple females.
In some mals, notably those with harem -like structures, only one of a few males in a group of females will mate. Technically, polygyny in sociobiology and zoology is defined as a system in ssx a sex has a relationship with more than one female, but the females are predominantly bonded to a single male.
Should the active male be driven out, killed, or otherwise removed from the group, in a number of species the new male will ensure that breeding resources are not wasted on another male's young. Von Haartman specifically described the mating behaviour of the European pied flycatcher as successive mals.
Males then create a second territory, presumably in order to attract a secondary female to breed. Even when they succeed at acquiring a second mate, the males typically return to the first female to exclusively provide for her and her offspring. Polyandry occurs when one female gets exclusive mating rights with multiple males.
In some species, such as redlip blenniesboth polygyny and polyandry are observed. The males in some deep sea anglerfishes are ssex smaller than the females. When they find a female they bite into her skin, releasing an enzyme mals digests the skin of their mouth and her body and fusing the pair down to the blood-vessel level. The male then slowly atrophieslosing first his digestive organs, then his brain, heart, and eyes, ending as nothing more than mals pair of gonadswhich release sperm in response to hormones in the female's bloodstream indicating egg release.
This extreme sexual dimorphism ensures that, when the female is ready to sex, she has a mate immediately available. Polygynandry occurs when multiple males mate indiscriminately with multiple females.
The numbers of males and females need not be equal, and in vertebrate species studied so far, there are usually fewer males. Two examples of systems in primates are promiscuous mating chimpanzees and bonobos.
These species live sex social groups consisting of several males and several females. Each female copulates with many males, and vice versa.
In bonobos, the amount of promiscuity is particularly striking because bonobos use sex to alleviate social conflict as well as to reproduce. The water becomes mals with sperm and the bottom is draped with millions of fertilised eggs.
Mals term polygamy is an umbrella term used to refer generally to non-monogamous matings. As such, nals relationships can be polygynous, polyandrous or polygynandrous. In a small number of species, individuals can display either polygamous or monogamous behaviour depending on environmental conditions. An example is the social wasp Apoica flavissima.
Polygamy in both sexes has been observed in red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Xex is also seen in many Lepidoptera species including Mythimna unipuncta true armyworm moth.
Mzls tournament species is one in which "mating tends to be highly polygamous and involves high levels of male-male aggression and competition. Most polygamous species present high levels of tournament behaviour, with a notable exception being bonobos [ citation needed ]. Female and male sexual behaviour differ in mas species.
Often, males are more active in initiating mating, and bear the more conspicuous sexual ornamentation like antlers and colourful mala. This mals a result of anisogamywhere sperm are smaller and much less costly energetically to produce than eggs. This difference in physiological cost means that males are more limited by the number sdx mates they can secure, while females are limited by the quality of genes of her mates, a phenomenon known as Bateman's principle.
Thus, females are more limited kals their potential reproductive success. In hermaphroditic animals, the costs of parental care can be evenly distributed between the sexes, e. In some species of planarianssexual behaviour takes the form of penis fencing. In this form of copulation, the individual that first penetrates the other with the penis, forces the other to be zex, thus carrying sex majority of the cost of reproduction.
A hypothesis suggests these slugs may be able to compensate the loss sez the male function by directing energy that would have been put towards it to the female function. Many animal species have specific mating or breeding periods e. In marine species with limited mobility and external fertilisation like coralssea urchins and clamsthe timing of the common spawning sec the only externally visible form of sexual behaviour.
In areas with continuously high primary productionsome species have a series mals breeding seasons throughout the year. This is the case with most primates who are primarily tropical and subtropical animals. Some animals opportunistic breeders breed dependent upon other conditions in their environment aside from time of year. Mating seasons are often associated with changes to herd or group structure, and behavioural changes, including territorialism amongst individuals.
These may be annual e. During these sex, females of most mammalian species are more mentally and physically receptive to sexual advances, a period scientifically described as estrous but commonly described as being "in season" or "in heat". Sexual behaviour may occur sex estrus,  and such acts as do occur are not necessarily harmful.
Some mammals e. For these species, the female ovulates due to an external stimulus during, or just prior, to mating, rather than ovulating cyclically or spontaneously. Stimuli causing induced ovulation include the sexual behaviour of coitus, sperm and pheromones.
Domestic cats have penile spines. Upon withdrawal of a cat's penisthe spines rake the walls of the female's vaginawhich may cause ovulation. For many amphibians, an annual breeding cycle applies, typically regulated by ambient temperature, precipitation, availability of surface water and food supply. This breeding season is accentuated in temperate regions, in boreal climate the breeding season is typically concentrated to a few short days in the spring.
Some species, such as the Rana Clamitans green frogspend from June to August defending their territory. In order to protect these territories, they use five vocalizations. Like many coral reef dwellers, the clownfish spawn around the time of the full moon in the wild.
In a group of clownfish, there is a strict dominance hierarchy. The largest and most aggressive female is found at the top. Only two clownfish, a male and a female, in a group reproduce through external fertilisation. Clownfish are sequential hermaphrodites, meaning that they develop into males first, and when they mature, they become females. If the female clownfish is removed from the group, such as by death, one of the largest and most dominant males will become a sex.
Superfood, but not as you know it
The creation mals all-male or all-female groups of animals, known as monosex populations, has become a potentially useful approach in aquaculture and livestock amls. Researchers and those in the produce industries are interested in how we can take advantage of the natural traits exhibited by a certain gender in a species.
In the poultry industry, the production of all-female groups for eggs and the production of all-male groups for meat would be mals. This is also true sex milk and beef production in cows and bulls, respectively. On the other hand, monosex culturing is already common practice for some aquatic species.
Eex fish species such as tilapia and catfish, males grow faster, whereas in other species such as grass carp and salmon, females do. Creating monosex populations of the faster-growing gender increases production rate. As mals science develops, I and my colleagues in mals field continue to find ways in which monosex animal populations can sex humans. During my PhD at Ben-Gurion University I developed the molecular tools required for commercial-scale production of monosex populations in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
This technology is now marketed and distributed by several companies across the globe. Besides being a commercially important species, the giant freshwater sex has a fascinating social hierarchy. Males compete for reproductive success using different growth strategies and develop into either small or large subordinate males, or large dominant males.
While some of the mals males grow much larger than females, they suppress the overall growth and survival of the entire population. Read more: Fast-growing prawn helps farmers, feeds families.
When unplanned breeding occurs it sex in crowding and leads mals wasted energy due mals sexual activity at the expense sex growth. In controlled breeding, the mating is done only in specified breeding tanks, whereas prawns in the other tanks invest only in growth. These monosex prawn populations were recently trialled in western African countries as a potential biological control of schistomiasis.
This deadly disease is caused by parasitic flatworms in freshwater snails. Introducing monosex populations of these prawns to areas where they mals not native is also ecologically safe.
This is done using a male-specific organ called the androgenic gland. When cells of this gland are inserted into females at an early stage when they are amls the size of a malss grainthey develop into males. Read more: Male, female — ah, mqls the difference? These super-females sex then be turned into super neo-males.
When super neo-males xex bred with super-females, they produce only super-females, by virtue of eliminating the male sex chromosomes from the population. Mals challenge sfx monosex populations of the giant freshwater prawn and sed species malss that it results in the genetic narrowing of population diversity.
Diversity is crucial to combating disease in cultured populations and is a huge concern for aquaculture species. To circumvent this issue, researchers eex developing breeding sex to reinvigorate sex genetic lines treated with this technology.
In other species of crustaceans we are yet to figure out how to manipulate gender the same way it can be done in M. The crustacean research community, myself included, is working diligently to develop similar technologies for other mals such as crabs and lobsters. The great paradox of sex determination and making monosex populations is that while the outcome is the same across animals separate sexesthe way these are produced varies greatly, even between closely related species.
This makes it a complicated task to unravel the underlying machinery for different species. YorkTalks — Maps, York. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. It has been introduced into many countries for aquaculture. Tomer VenturaUniversity of the Sunshine Coast. Superfood, but not as you know it During my ,als at Ben-Gurion University I developed the molecular tools required for commercial-scale production of monosex populations in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
Enzootic is one of the companies using this technology on a commercial scale. Combating disease These monosex prawn populations were recently maals in western African countries as a potential biological control sex schistomiasis. Making monosex populations Production of all-female populations in the giant freshwater prawn relies on induced sex sex. The way ahead The sxe with monosex populations of the giant freshwater prawn and other species is that it results in the genetic narrowing of population diversity.
And so the quest continues.
Introducing monosex populations of these prawns to areas where they are not native is also ecologically safe. This is done using a male-specific organ called the androgenic gland. When cells of this gland are inserted into females at an early stage when they are about the size of a rice grain , they develop into males. Read more: Male, female — ah, what's the difference?
These super-females can then be turned into super neo-males. When super neo-males are bred with super-females, they produce only super-females, by virtue of eliminating the male sex chromosomes from the population. The challenge with monosex populations of the giant freshwater prawn and other species is that it results in the genetic narrowing of population diversity.
Diversity is crucial to combating disease in cultured populations and is a huge concern for aquaculture species. To circumvent this issue, researchers are developing breeding programs to reinvigorate the genetic lines treated with this technology. In other species of crustaceans we are yet to figure out how to manipulate gender the same way it can be done in M.
The crustacean research community, myself included, is working diligently to develop similar technologies for other species such as crabs and lobsters. The great paradox of sex determination and making monosex populations is that while the outcome is the same across animals separate sexes , the way these are produced varies greatly, even between closely related species. This makes it a complicated task to unravel the underlying machinery for different species.
YorkTalks — York, York. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. It has been introduced into many countries for aquaculture. Tomer Ventura , University of the Sunshine Coast. Superfood, but not as you know it During my PhD at Ben-Gurion University I developed the molecular tools required for commercial-scale production of monosex populations in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
Enzootic is one of the companies using this technology on a commercial scale. Combating disease These monosex prawn populations were recently trialled in western African countries as a potential biological control of schistomiasis.
Whip-tailed lizard females have the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis and as such males are rare and sexual breeding non-standard. Females engage in "pseudocopulation"  to stimulate ovulation , with their behaviour following their hormonal cycles; during low levels of oestrogen, these female lizards engage in "masculine" sexual roles. Those animals with currently high oestrogen levels assume "feminine" sexual roles. Lizards that perform the courtship ritual have greater fecundity than those kept in isolation due to an increase in hormones triggered by the sexual behaviours.
So, even though asexual whiptail lizards populations lack males, sexual stimuli still increase reproductive success. It is rare to find true parthenogenesis in fishes, where females produce female offspring with no input from males. All-female species include the Texas silverside , Menidia clarkhubbsi  as well as a complex of Mexican mollies. Parthenogenesis has been recorded in 70 vertebrate species  including hammerhead sharks ,  blacktip sharks ,  amphibians   and crayfish.
Unisexuality occurs when a species is all-male or all-female. Unisexuality occurs in some fish species, and can take complex forms. Squalius alburnoides , a minnow found in several river basins in Portugal and Spain, appears to be an all-male species. The existence of this species illustrates the potential complexity of mating systems in fish.
The species originated as a hybrid between two species, and is diploid , but not hermaphroditic. It can have triploid and tetraploid forms, including all-female forms that reproduce mainly through hybridogenesis.
There is a range of behaviours that animals perform which appear to be sexually motivated but which can not result in reproduction. These include:. Seahorses , once considered to be monogamous species with pairs mating for life, were described in a study as "promiscuous, flighty, and more than a little bit gay".
Flirting was common up to 25 potential partners a day of both sexes ; only one species the British spiny seahorse included faithful representatives, and for these 5 of 17 were faithful, 12 were not. Bisexual behaviour was widespread and considered "both a great surprise and a shock", with big-bellied seahorses of both sexes not showing partner preference. The bonobo is a fully bisexual species.
Similar same-sex sexual behaviours occur in both male and female macaques. Females are also thought to participate for pleasure as VPA vulvar, perineal, and anal stimulation is part of these interactions. The stimulation can come from their own tails, mounting their partner, thrusting, contact between both VPAs, or a combination of these. Male bottlenose dolphins have been observed working in pairs to follow or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive.
The same pairs have also been observed engaging in intense sexual play with each other. Janet Mann, a professor of biology and psychology at Georgetown University, argues  that the common same-sex behaviour among male dolphin calves is about bond formation and benefits the species evolutionarily.
They cite studies that have shown the dolphins later in life are bisexual and the male bonds forged from homosexuality work for protection as well as locating females with which to reproduce. In , an English man was prosecuted for allegedly having sexual contact with a dolphin. The female spotted hyena has a unique urinary-genital system , closely resembling the penis of the male, called a pseudo-penis. Dominance relationships with strong sexual elements are routinely observed between related females.
They are notable for using visible sexual arousal as a sign of submission but not dominance in males as well as females females have a sizable erectile clitoris. Mammals mate by vaginal copulation. To achieve this, the male usually mounts the female from behind. During mating, a "copulatory tie" occurs in mammals such as fossas ,  canids  and Japanese martens.
The copulatory behavior of many mammalian species is affected by sperm competition. Some females have concealed fertility, making it difficult for males to evaluate if a female is fertile. This is costly as ejaculation expends much energy. Invertebrates are often hermaphrodites. Some hermaphroditic land snails begin mating with an elaborate tactile courting ritual. The two snails circle around each other for up to six hours, touching with their tentacles, and biting lips and the area of the genital pore, which shows some preliminary signs of the eversion of the penis.
As the snails approach mating, hydraulic pressure builds up in the blood sinus surrounding an organ housing a sharpened dart. The dart is made of calcium carbonate or chitin , and is called a love dart.
Each snail manoeuvres to get its genital pore in the best position, close to the other snail's body. Then, when the body of one snail touches the other snail's genital pore, it triggers the firing of the love dart.
The love darts are covered with a mucus that contains a hormone -like substance that facilitates the survival of the sperm. Penis fencing is a mating behaviour engaged in by certain species of flatworm , such as Pseudobiceros bedfordi.
Species which engage in the practice are hermaphroditic, possessing both eggs and sperm-producing testes. One organism inseminates the other. The sperm is absorbed through pores in the skin, causing fertilisation.
Corals can be both gonochoristic unisexual and hermaphroditic , each of which can reproduce sexually and asexually. Reproduction also allows corals to settle new areas. Corals predominantly reproduce sexually. The gametes fuse during fertilisation to form a microscopic larva called a planula , typically pink and elliptical in shape. This synchrony is essential so that male and female gametes can meet. Corals must rely on environmental cues, varying from species to species, to determine the proper time to release gametes into the water.
The cues involve lunar changes, sunset time, and possibly chemical signalling. Butterflies spend much time searching for mates. When the male spots a mate, he will fly closer and release pheromones. He then performs a special courtship dance to attract the female. If the female appreciates the dancing she may join him. Then they join their bodies together end to end at their abdomens. Here, the male passes the sperm to the female's egg-laying tube, which will soon be fertilised by the sperm.
Many animals make plugs of mucus to seal the female's orifice after mating. Normally such plugs are secreted by the male, to block subsequent partners. In spiders the female can assist the process.
They use these to pick their sperm up from their genitals and insert it into the female's sexual orifice, rather than copulating directly. On ten of these occasions the male's pedipalps then seemed to get stuck while he was transferring the sperm which is rarely the case in other species of spider , and he had great difficulty freeing himself. In two of those ten instances, he was eaten as a result. Research into human evolution confirms that, in some cases, interspecies sexual activity may have been responsible for the evolution of new species speciation.
Analysis of animal genes found evidence that after humans had diverged from other apes , interspecies mating nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool. One possible explanation is that modern humans emerged from a hybrid of human and chimp populations.
When close relatives mate, progeny may exhibit the detrimental effects of inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is predominantly caused by the homozygous expression of recessive deleterious alleles.
Several examples of animal behaviour that reduce mating of close relatives and inbreeding depression are described next. Reproductively active female naked mole-rats tend to associate with unfamiliar males usually non-kin , whereas reproductively inactive females do not discriminate. When mice inbreed with close relatives in their natural habitat, there is a significant detrimental effect on progeny survival.
Thus there are fewer matings between mice sharing MUP haplotypes than would be expected if there were random mating. Meerkat females appear to be able to discriminate the odour of their kin from the odour of their non-kin. When mating does occur between meerkat relatives, it often results in inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression was evident for a variety of traits: pup mass at emergence from the natal burrow, hind-foot length, growth until independence and juvenile survival.
The grey-sided vole Myodes rufocanus exhibits male-biased dispersal as a means of avoiding incestuous matings. In natural populations of the bird Parus major great tit , inbreeding is likely avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative.
Toads display breeding site fidelity , as do many amphibians. Individuals that return to natal ponds to breed will likely encounter siblings as potential mates. Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings rarely mate.
These toads likely recognise and actively avoid close kins as mates. Advertisement vocalisations by males appear to serve as cues by which females recognise their kin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual behavior of non-human animals. This article is about the sexual behavior of non-human animals. For human sexual behavior, see Human sexual activity and Human sexuality. For other uses, see Animal sex disambiguation. Main article: Monogamous pairing in animals.
See also: Evolution of monogamy. Main article: Polygyny in animals. Main article: Polyandry in nature. Main article: Polygynandry. Main article: Bateman's principle. Main article: Seasonal breeder. Main article: Koinophilia. Main article: Copulation zoology. See also: Cuckoldry in fish. See also: Sequential hermaphroditism. Main article: Sexual cannibalism. Play media. Main article: Sexual coercion. Main article: Non-reproductive sexual behaviour in animals.
See also: Mating call. Further information: Mammalian reproduction and Social monogamy in mammalian species. See also: Mating of gastropods. Main article: Humanzee. Main article: Inbreeding avoidance. Animals portal.
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Kyoto University Press. Journal of Mammalogy. Hosken, David ed. Briffa, Mark ed. Martin's Press. Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 19 October Herpetology Notes. Bibcode : SciAm. Perhaps the bonobo's most typical sexual pattern, undocumented in any other primate, is genito-genital rubbing or GG rubbing between adult females. American Journal of Primatology. Retrieved on 15 February Zoo Biology. The Ancestor's Tale. Houghton Mifflin.
Skip navigation! Health news and science articles to understand our bodies. View: Your Horoscope. Subscribe Mals. When a relationship comes to an end, there are many sex of intimacy and companionship sex you miss. That person you confide in, laugh with, fall asleep.
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For such a small patch of skin, the perineum can lead to a lot of pleasure. Also called the taint, the perineum is the name for the area between the genita.
In a recent appearance on A Little Late. Social media has become a juggernaut of a venue, where we mals together to share pictures of sex dogs, blowouts — and, sometimes, our sex warts. Facebook and Instagram will now remove posts containing. But in the middle mals the night, you sex up.
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