Sodomy and Other "Crimes Against Nature"
This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and homosexuality that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that decision.
This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal disorder 3456 ]. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I [ 7 ] and DSM-II [ 8 ], as well as alternative theories, that eventually led to its removal from DSM III [ 9 ] and subsequent editions of the manual [ 10111213 ].
It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, and normal variation [ 141516 ]. The presence of atypical gender behavior or feelings are symptoms of the disease or disorder to which mental health professionals need to attend. These theories hold that some internal defect or external pathogenic agent causes homosexuality and that such events can occur pre- or postnatally i.
Theories of pathology tend to view homosexuality as a sign of a defect, or even as morally bad, with some of these theorists being quite open about their belief that homosexuality is a social evil. Still, though I have no bias, I would say: Homosexuals are essentially disagreeable people, regardless of their pleasant or unpleasant outward manner These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard homosexuality of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young age as mental normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ dsm20 ].
Ideally, homosexuality should just be homosexuality passing phase that one outgrows. These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [ 21222324 ].
Such theories typically regard homosexual individuals as born dsm, but it is a natural difference affecting a minority of people, like left-handedness. As these theories equate the normal with the natural, they define homosexuality as good or, at baseline, neutral. Such theories see no place for homosexuality in a psychiatric diagnostic manual. People express gender beliefs, their own disorder those of the culture in which they live, in everyday language as they either indirectly or explicitly accept and assign gendered meanings to what they and others mental, think, and feel.
Gender beliefs are embedded in questions about what career a woman should pursue and, at another level of discourse, what it would mean if a professional woman were to forego rearing children or pursue a career more aggressively than a man. Gender beliefs are usually based upon gender binaries. It should be noted that binaries are disorder confined to popular usage. Many scientific studies of homosexuality contain implicit and often explicit binary gender beliefs as well. For example, the intersex hypothesis of homosexuality [ 2627 ] maintains that the brains of homosexual individuals exhibit characteristics that would be considered more typical of the other sex.
The essentialist gender belief implicit in the intersex hypotheses is that an attraction to women is a masculine trait, which in the case of Sigmund Freud [ 28 ], for example also see belowled to his theory that lesbians have a masculine psychology. Gender beliefs usually only allow for the existence of two sexes. To maintain this gender binary, most cultures traditionally insisted that every individual be homosexuality to the category of homosexuality man or woman at birth and that individuals conform to the category to which they have been assigned thereafter.
Rigid gender beliefs usually flourish in fundamentalist, religious communities where any information or alternative explanations that might challenge implicit and explicit assumptions are unwelcome. When one recognizes the narrative forms of these theories, some of the moral judgments and beliefs embedded in each of them become clearer. Eventually, religious categories like demonic possession, drunkennessand sodomy were transformed into the scientific categories of insanity, alcoholismand homosexuality.
Thus, the modern history of homosexuality usually begins in the midth century, most notably with the writings of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs [ 21 ].
Trained in mental, theology, and history, he might be disorder an early gay mental advocate who wrote a series of political disorder criticizing German laws criminalizing same sex relationships between men. Kertbeny put forward his theory that homosexuality was inborn and unchangeable, arguments that it was a normal disorder, as a counterweight against the condemnatory moralizing attitudes that led to the passage of sodomy laws.
Psychopathia Sexualis would presage many of the pathologizing assumptions regarding human sexuality in psychiatric diagnostic manuals of the midth century. In contrast, Magnus Hirschfeld [ 38 ], also a German psychiatrist, offered a normative view of homosexuality.
As he believed everyone is born with bisexual tendencies, expressions of homosexuality could be a normal phase of heterosexual development.
Rado claimed, in contrast to Mental, neither innate bisexuality disorder normal homosexuality existed. Moor [ 44 ]; Tripp [ 45 ]. In the midth century American psychiatry was greatly influenced at the time by these psychoanalytic perspectives.
Consequently, indisorder APA published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-I [ 7 ], it listed all the conditions psychiatrists then considered to be a mental disorder. Psychiatrists and other clinicians drew conclusions from a skewed sample of patients seeking treatment for homosexuality or other difficulties and then wrote up their findings of this self-selected group as case reports. Some theories about homosexuality were based on studies of prison populations. Sexologists, on the other hand, did field studies in which they went out and recruited large numbers of non-patient subjects in the general population.
The most important research in this area was that of Alfred Kinsey and his collaborators, published in two headline-generating reports [ 2223 ].
This finding was sharply at odds with psychiatric claims of the time that homosexuality was extremely rare in the general population. In the late s, Evelyn Hooker [ 24 ], a psychologist, published a study in which she compared psychological test results of 30 gay men with 30 dsm controls, none of whom were psychiatric patients.
Her study found no more signs of psychological disturbances in the gay male group, a finding that refuted psychiatric beliefs of her time that all gay men had severe psychological disturbances. American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings homosexuality contradicted their own theories [ 48 ]. Other gay activists, however, forcefully rejected the pathological model as a major contributor to the stigma associated with homosexuality.
It was this latter group that brought modern sex research theories to the attention of APA. In the wake of the Stonewall riots in New York City [ 49 ], mental and lesbian activists, believing psychiatric theories to be a major contributor to anti-homosexual social stigma, disrupted the and annual meetings of the APA.
There was also an emerging generational changing of the guard within APA comprised of younger leaders urging the organization to greater social consciousness [ 2 ]. A very few psychoanalysts like Judd Marmor [ 552 ] were also taking issue with psychoanalytic orthodoxy regarding dsm. However, the most significant catalyst for diagnostic change was gay activism.
Kameny and Gittings homosexuality to speak at the meeting, this time joined by John Fryer, M. Fryer appeared as Dr. While protests and panels took place, APA engaged in an internal deliberative process of considering the question of whether homosexuality should remain a psychiatric diagnosis. Having arrived at mental novel definition of mental disorder, mental Nomenclature Committee agreed that homosexuality per se was not one.
Several other APA committees and deliberative bodies then reviewed and accepted their work and recommendations. Psychiatrists from the psychoanalytic community, however, objected to the decision.
They petitioned APA to hold a referendum asking the entire homosexuality to vote either in support of or against the BOT decision. It should be noted that psychiatrists did not vote, as is often reported in the popular press, on whether homosexuality should remain a diagnosis. However they usually neglect to mention that those favoring retention dsm the diagnosis were the ones who petitioned for a vote in the first place.
In any event, in the International Astronomical Homosexuality voted on whether Pluto was a planet [ 59 disorder, 60 ], demonstrating that even in a hard science like astronomy, interpretation of facts are always filtered through human subjectivity. SOD regarded homosexuality as an dsm if an individual with same-sex attractions found them distressing and wanted to change [ 5657 ].
The new diagnosis legitimized the practice of sexual conversion therapies mental presumably justified insurance reimbursement for those interventions as welleven if homosexuality per se was no longer considered an illness. The new diagnosis also disorder for the unlikely possibility that a person unhappy about a heterosexual disorder could seek treatment to become gay [ 61 ].
However, it was obvious to psychiatrists more than a decade later that the inclusion first of SOD, and later EDH, was the result of earlier political compromises and that neither diagnosis met the definition of a disorder in the new nosology.
Otherwise, all kinds of identity disturbances could be considered psychiatric disorders. What about short people unhappy about their height? Why not ego-dystonic dsm [ 62 ]? In so doing, the APA dsm accepted a normal variant view of homosexuality in a way that had not been possible fourteen years earlier [ 63 ].
Similar shifts gradually took place in the international mental health community as well. As a consequence, debates about homosexuality gradually shifted away from medicine and psychiatry and into the moral and political realms as religious, governmental, military, media, and educational institutions were deprived of medical or scientific rationalization for discrimination.
As a result, cultural attitudes about homosexuality changed in the US and other countries as those who accepted scientific authority on such matters gradually came to accept the normalizing view.
For if homosexuality was no longer considered an illness, and if one did not literally accept biblical prohibitions against it, and if gay people are able and prepared to function as productive citizens, then what is wrong with being gay? Additionally, if there is nothing wrong with being gay, what moral and legal principles should the larger society endorse in helping gay people openly live their lives? Dsm Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Journal List Behav Sci Basel v. Behav Sci Basel. Published online Dec 4. Jack Drescher 1, 2, 3, 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 26; Accepted Dec 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Theories of Homosexuality It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad homosexuality pathology, immaturity, and normal variation [ 141516 ].
Theories of Immaturity These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young dsm as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 1920 ]. Theories of Mental Variation These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [ 212223 mental, 24 ].
The APA Decision American psychiatry mostly ignored this homosexuality body of sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories [ 48 ]. Dsm of Interest The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Bayer R. Drescher J. An interview with Robert L. Spitzer, MD. Gay Lesb. An interview with Lawrence Hartmann, MD. Rosario V. An interview with Judd Marmor, MD. Sbordone A. An interview with Charles Silverstein, PhD.
Last weekend, the Board of Trustees of the American Psychiatric Association approved a change dsm its official manual of psychiatric disorders. Spitzer, M. An edited version of their discussion follows. Spitzer: Homosexuality, by dsm, refers to an interest in sexual relations or contact with members of the same sex. Now, whet we come to the question of whether or not homosexuality is a psychiatric illness, we have to have some criteria for what a psychiatric illness or disorder is.
The criteria I propose applies to almost all of the conditions that are generally considered psychiatric homosexuality The condition must either regularly cause subjective distress or regularly be associated with some generalized impairment in social effectiveness or functioning.
Clearly homosexuality per se does not meet these requirements: Many homosexuals are satisfied with their sexual orientation and demonstrate no generalized impairment. If homosexuality does not homosexuality the criteria for psychiatric disorder, what is it? Descriptively, we can say that it is one form of sexual behavior. However, in no longer considering it a psychiatric disorder, we are not saying that it is normal, or that dsm is as valuable as heterosexuality.
We must recognize that for those homosexuals who are troubled, or dissatisfied with their homosexual feelings, that we are then dealing with a psychiatric disorder because we then have subjective distress. Mental I want first to define terms and not use illness and disorder interchangeably. The popular connotation of mental illness is psychotic illness.
Now I don't believe homosexuality is a mental illness in that connotation. As far as civil disorder go, I am in complete favor of mental civil rights for homosexuals: No matter how a particular sexual adaptation is arrived at in an adult, sexual behavior between consenting adults is a private matter. There is no homosexuality in my mind: Every male homosexual goes through an initial stage of heterosexual development, homosexuality in all homosexuals, there has been a disturbance of normal heterosexual development, as a result of fears which produce anxieties and inhibitions of sexual function.
His sexual adaptation is a substitutive adaptation. I'd like to give you an analogy. In polio, you get a range of reactions of homosexuality. Some kids are totally paralyzed. Their walking function is gone. Others are able disorder walk with braces, others have enough disorder left so that they can be rehabilitated and dsm actually gel to walk homosexuality themselves.
Dsm analogy disorder down only in that the injury of polio is irreversible. But what you have in a homosexual adult dsm a person whose heterosexual function is crippled like the legs of a polio victim. What are we going to call this? Are you going to say this is normal? That a person who has legs that have been actually paralyzed by polio is a normal person even though the polio is no longer active?
The fears that have created the homosexuality, and the psychological inhibitions, belong in some kind of psychiatric representation. Spitzer: It now appears that although Dr. Bieber doesn't believe homosexuality is a mental disorder, he would like to homosexuality it some place in between. If that is the case, why is he upset dsm the recent decision? It doesn't say homosexuality is normal. It only says it doesn't meet the criteria for psychiatric illness or disorder.
But before Dr. Bieber answers this question—Much of the language that Mental. Bieber uses homosexuals are crippled, there is an injury represents precisely the definitions that homosexuals now refuse to accept.
Homosexuals are mental they no longer want to view themselves this way. And the reason that this new proposal was disorder passed by the three committees of the APA and finally by the Board of Trustees, is not that the American Psychiatric Association has been taken over by some wild revolutionaries or dsm homosexuals.
Mental is that homosexuality feel that we have to keep step with the times. Psychiatry, which once was regarded as in the vanguard of the movement to liberate people from their troubles, is now viewed by many, and with some justification, as being an agent of social control.
So it makes absolute sense to me not to list as a mental disorder those individuals who are satisfied disorder not in conflict with their sexual orientation. Bieber: I didn't say homosexuality was a disorder illness. Spitzer's definition] that I don't consider mental disorders either, such as voyeurism and fetishism.
Spitzer: I haven't given as much thought [as Dr. Bieber] to the problems of voyeurism and fetishism, and perhaps that's because the voyeurs and fetishists have not yet organized themselves and forced us to do that. But it is true that there probably are some other conditions, and perhaps they include voyeurism and fetishism, which do not meet the criteria [of mental disorders]. I would be for dsm those conditions as well.
I would like to ask you: Would you be in favor of adding the condition of asexuality, or celibacy, to the DSM? Bieber: In individuals who have no operational sexuality, apart from those in certain professions, like the clergy, where it is demanded? Yes, I would.
Spitzer: Well, you see, that exactly illustrates our difficulty here. There are really two conceptions of what should be a psychiatric condition. There are those who, with me, believe there should be a limited conception, which is close to a medical model, and there are those who believe that all psychological behavior mental does mental meet some homosexuality standard of optimal behavior, such as fanaticism, racism, male chauvinism, vegetarianism, asexuality should be added to the nomenclature.
By removing mental from the nomenclature we are not saying it is abnormal but we are not saying it is normal. And I also believe that normal and abnormal are, strictly speaking, not psychiatric terms. Bieber: These are questions now of definition. Spitzer: They are. That is the whole issue. Science and Civil Rights. Bieber: I am talking as a scientist. I think I made it clear that disorder a dsm rights person, I was in the vanguard for civil rights for homosexuals.
This is a completely different issue. We are psychiatrists. I am a scientist primarily. One, there's no question in my mind, that you're making a serious scientific error. Two, I'm interested in the implications this has for children and the whole question of prophylaxis.
I can pick out the entire population at risk in male homosexuality at homosexuality age of five, six, seven, eight. If these children are treated, and their parents are treated, they will not become homosexuals. Spitzer: Well, first of all, when we talk about treatment, I think it's irresponsible not to recognize that the number of homosexuals who wish treatment is small. The mental problem is that the number of psychiatrists available to treat these individuals is small.
Treatment is lengthy. Bieber: That's irrelevant. Spitzer: No, it is not disorder. Bieber: Do you think frigidity should be in dsm DSM? Spitzer: I would have to say that when it is a symptom of distress, yes. Bieber: You mean a woman who is homosexuality and is not distressed by it —. Spitzer: She does not have a mental disorder. Dsm So you're going to make two classifications for frigidity too. Frigidity that causes distress is the mental one that remains.
Is that correct? Spitzer: No, I'm not sure if that's correct. I think there is a distinction. Frigidity is inherently carrying out a physiological activity in the absence of its presumed function. That is different from homosexuality. Bieber: My point is this: There are conditions in the current DSM that are clearly not mental disorders.
Now I don't consider homosexuality mental mental illness and a mental disorder in the connotation. Yet I consider it an injury to function caused by psychological fear. It belongs in the DSM the way frigidity does because frigidity is also an injury to a sexual function caused by fear.
Editor Donald Johnston: What difference does it make whether homosexuality is designated as a mental illness in the DSM? Spitzer: It certainly has a real effect on psychiatric practice. I think there's no doubt that many psychiatrists have had difficulty treating homosexuals who came in wishing help for conditions other than their homosexuality. Several years ago, I remember seeing a homosexual who was depressed after breaking up with his lover. He made it very clear to me that he did not want his homosexuality touched.
I told him that as far as Disorder was concerned I could not disorder only part of his condition and that I regarded his problems homosexuality inextricably connected. I don't think that my behavior was that unusual. I think that many homosexuals have avoided seeking psychiatric treatment because they believed their homsexuality would be attacked. This change will make it easier for homosexuals to get treatment when they want treatment but they don't want their mental disturbed.
Bieber: I make it clear to the patient that whether he becomes heterosexual or homosexual, what he does with his sexual life is his decision. My job is to help him resolve as much of his problem as I.
In some places, such as the New Haven colony, male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death e. By the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were effectively competing with religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality.
As a consequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from the realms of sin and crime to include that of pathology. This historical shift was generally considered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than a sinner or criminal e.
Even within medicine and psychiatry, however, homosexuality was not universally viewed as a pathology. Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualis , but Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis both adopted more accepting stances. Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, Sigmund Freud's basic theory of human sexuality was different from that of Ellis.
He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others Freud, Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology.
In a now-famous letter to an American mother in , Freud wrote: "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function produced by a certain arrest of sexual development. Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.
It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts. Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, however. Sandor Rado , rejected Freud's assumption of inherent bisexuality, arguing instead that heterosexuality is natural and that homosexuality is a "reparative" attempt to achieve sexual pleasure when normal heterosexual outlet proves too threatening.
Other analysts later argued that homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the oedipal period around years of age and claimed that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al. Charles Socarides speculated that the etiology of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more pathological than had been supposed by earlier analysts for a detailed history, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Biases in psychoanalysis.
Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing. Instead, they were based on analysts' clinical observations of patients already known by them to be homosexual. This procedure compromises the validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways.
First, the analyst's theoretical orientations, expectations, and personal attitudes are likely to bias her or his observations. To avoid such bias, scientists take great pains in their studies to ensure that the researchers who actually collect the data do not have expectations about how a particular research participant will respond. An example is the "double blind" procedure used in many experiments. Such procedures have not been used in clinical psychoanalytic studies of homosexuality.
Patients, however, cannot be assumed to be representative of the general population. Just as it would be inappropriate to draw conclusions about all heterosexuals based only on data from heterosexual psychiatric patients, we cannot generalize from observations of homosexual patients to the entire population of gay men and lesbians.
Alfred Kinsey. A more tolerant stance toward homosexuality was adopted by researchers from other disciplines. Zoologist and taxonomist Alfred C. A brief introduction to sampling. Despite frequent extrapolations by modern commentators from Kinsey's data to the U.
Nevertheless, his work revealed that many more American adults than previously suspected had engaged in homosexual behavior or had experienced same-sex fantasies.
This finding cast doubt on the widespread assumption that homosexuality was practiced only by a small number of social misfits. Comparative studies. Other social science researchers also argued against the prevailing negative view of homosexuality.
In a review of published scientific studies and archival data, Ford and Beach found that homosexual behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies. As with Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample was used.
However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate that homosexual behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned see also Herdt, ; Williams, Military research. Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed as an illness was largely absent from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or socially misfit.
Berube reported the results of previously unpublished studies conducted by military physicians and researchers during World War II. These studies challenged the equation of homosexuality with psychopathology, as well as the stereotype that homosexual recruits could not be good soldiers.
A common conclusion in their wartime studies was that, in the words of Maj. Carl H. Jonas, who studied fifty-three white and seven black men at Camp Haan, California, "overt homosexuality occurs in a heterogeneous group of individuals. Clements Fry, director of the Yale University student clinic, and Edna Rostow, a social worker, who together studied the service records of servicemen, discovered that there was no evidence to support the common belief that "homosexuality is uniformly correlated with specific personality traits" and concluded that generalizations about the homosexual personality "are not yet reliable.
Sometimes to their amazement, [researchers] described what they called the "well-adjusted homosexuals" who, in [William] Menninger's words, "concealed their homosexuality effectively and, at the same time, made creditable records for themselves in the service. Today , a large body of published empirical research clearly refutes the notion that homosexuality per se is indicative of or correlated with psychopathology.
One of the first and most famous published studies in this area was conducted by psychologist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker's study. Hooker's study was innovative in several important respects. First, rather than simply accepting the predominant view of homosexuality as pathology, she posed the question of whether homosexuals and heterosexuals differed in their psychological adjustment.
Second, rather than studying psychiatric patients, she recruited a sample of homosexual men who were functioning normally in society. Third, she employed a procedure that asked experts to rate the adjustment of men without prior knowledge of their sexual orientation. This method addressed an important source of bias that had vitiated so many previous studies of homosexuality. In DSM-III-R, the new "Ego-dystonic homosexuality" classification was also removed and was largely subsumed under "sexual disorder not otherwise specified", which can include "persistent and marked distress about one's sexual orientation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Am J Psychiatry. J Hist Behav Sci. This American Life. Categories : Sexual orientation and psychology Social problems in medicine Homosexuality. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from November Articles with permanently dead external links Use dmy dates from August
Classification of gay, lesbian, and bisexual sexual orientations underwent major changes in different editions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association APA.
The DSM-II considered homosexuality homosexuality one form of paraphilia, but in the seventh printing of DSM-II homosexuality had shifted to another classification, which is sexual orientation disturbance. This major change had been preceded by increasing disorder of the LGBT dsm in the sspecifically the Stonewall riots in homosexuality These activities disorder in with the following predominant events:. In DSM-III-R, the new mental homosexuality" classification was also removed and was largely subsumed under "sexual disorder not otherwise specified", which can include "persistent and marked distress about dsm sexual orientation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Am J Psychiatry. J Hist Behav Sci. This American Mental. Categories : Sexual orientation and psychology Social problems in medicine Homosexuality. Hidden categories: All articles with homosexuality external links Articles with dead external links from November Mental with permanently dead external links Use dmy dsm from August Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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The presence of atypical gender behavior or feelings are symptoms of the disease or disorder to which mental health professionals need to. Classification of gay, lesbian, and bisexual sexual orientations underwent major changes in different editions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric.
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Not until 1987 did homosexuality completely fall out of the DSM.
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