Power plants for motor vehicles get manufactured in their thousands but few remain a household name. This page is a tribute to the Ford Essex 2. What puts these engines in the fordd ten of my ford is a the affordability and diesel the ease of ford the home mechanic could raise the power and torque.
Modern times call for drastic measures and certainly there are cc engines developing the same amount of horsepower ford more performance but these are temperamental beasts powered by sophisticated and diesel electronics.
The Essex name was derived from the county essex which the first British motor originated, Dagenham, Essex — this was a 60 degree motor ford to the later Canadian version which had Essex sitting at 90 degrees. This article is dedicated to the 60 degree UK version which had a cast iron block, believed to come from the original intention of essex diesel engines with minimum retooling. Here was an engine that was used diesel practically every sector of industry from agriculture, generators to marine.
The VW Combi was modified to run with ford motor albeit not diesel successfully due to heating forr in the ones I came across.
Many pickup essex would basically trash their engines when it reached diewel certain mileage or stage of wear ford fit the 3L V6 — it was a cheap alternative and in many eseex essex than the original. For breakdown rigs these motors were virtually indispensable. The Essex motor was eventually replaced by the Cologne yet in South Africa the motor continued in production as the Essex diesel with Lucas fuel duesel.
Both variants of the motor viesel push rods and overhead valves, this configuration changed for the Cosworth essex which had double overhead cams and fuel injection. The original Essex motor, although diesel for the Transit vans had oodles of torque and was exceptionally smooth to drive. And cheap too. From my ford experience there diesel to be a natural tendency for DIYers to focus on the Beetle motor, the Ford cc and of course the 3L Essex motor. Most companies supplying high performance camshafts or rebuilds cater to the end-users budget dieseo these engines are no exception, especially based diesel their popularity and simplicity.
More information essex pressing "read more" below. Ok Read more.
It is closely related to the Ford Essex V4 engine produced in displacements of 1. Esssx engines share many parts since the Essex V6 was directly derived from the Essex V4, the 2. The Essex Essex and V6 were mainly designed to replace the outdated and aging inline-four and six-cylinder Essex Zephyr engineit was produced in four capacities : 2. The 2. Only RS s were produced for homologation purposes, making original 3.
This engine was used in the diesel version of the Capri RScompeting successfully in the European Touring Car Championshipas well as in Formula single-seaters.
Earlier versions of the 3. It was subsequently replaced by a more modern twin choke 38 DGAS Weber carburetor which effectively solved the problems xiesel the earlier carburetors, and was used for the 3-Litre Fkrd until the end of its production;  the 2.
Unusually, the Essex V6 was designed so that the same block could serve in both diesel compression fofd and petrol applications, although the diesel version never reached production. In spite of its heaviness, the Essex V6 was used as the main workhorse and a high performance option essex medium to full-sized cars like the Capri the Granada and Transit vans diesel by Ford to the Police and Ambulance services in the UK throughout the late s and s and up until in the case of the Transit where it was later replaced by more modern engines such as the fuel injected 2.
In lieu of fuel injectionthe carburettor was run inside a pressurized box atop the engine, and the turbocharger itself was mounted low and forward in the engine compartment, requiring the exhaust manifolds to exit eszex the compression ratio was lowered from 9.
Broadspeed also designed a turbocharging system For the Mk1 Ford Capri 3. Similar to the TVR Ford turbocharging system, it used a "Blow through Carburetor" system in which the standard but re-jetted 38 Foord Weber carburetor was run inside a pressurized box, performance figures further increased with the uprated post-October versions of the engine;  the company Janspeed, well known for their high performance exhaust systems also designed a turbocharging system for the Ford Essex 3.
Companies like Specialised Engines, Essex engines and Ric Wood have professionally built and developed diexel displacement 3. InCalifornian company Olson Engineering, Inc. An owner's handbook supplement for US Federal models indicates that the emissions control system used a catalytic converter, exhaust gas recirculationand secondary air injection.
A shipment of approximately twenty Ss arrived in Septemberand were marked by the import company as being emissions compliant without the Olson Engineering emissions kit actually having been fitted. Dealers were made aware of this fact, but were each apparently coerced into buying at least two of the non-compliant cars with the ewsex of withholding spare parts for other TVR models. One dealer explained the situation to a customer who happened to work for the US government in an emissions-regulation capacity, and he reported the violation to the authorities; the cars were then impounded.
In South Africa, the engine continued in production from up to April for use in the Sapphire Saloon and Sierra vehicles, and Essec pick-ups. Only about 1, of the EFI variants were produced during and In Octoberthe 3.
The 3. All 3. Production tooling at the factory was scrapped and sold into make way for the production of a new four cylinder OHC engine, the remaining old stock of 3. The Ford V6 was fitted to a wide variety of cars, both from Ford and from smaller specialist manufacturers that used Ford engines.
Among these were the following:. V6 engine A V6 engine for a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks exsex three cylinders set at a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other.
The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations ranging from 2. Because of its short length, the V6 fits well diesel the used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout; the V6 is commercially successful in contemporary mid-size cars because it is less expensive to build and is smoother in large sizes than the inline 4, which develops serious vibration problems in larger engines.
Recent forced induction V6 engines have delivered horsepower and torque output comparable to contemporary larger displacement aspirated V8 engines, while reducing fuel consumption and emissions, such as the Volkswagen Group's 3. Modern V6 engines range in displacement from 2.
Some of the essex V6-powered automobiles were built in by Marmon ; this firm became something of a V-engine specialist producing, in the s, a V16 engine, as one of the few automakers in the world. From todiesel Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced gasoline-electric diesel sets which used a V6 as generator engine.
Only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in The first series-production V6 essex introduced by Lancia in with the Lancia Aurelia model. Lancia sought a more powerful engine that would fodd into an existing narrow engine bay. There was resistance to his conclusion diesel the V6 was a unknown engine type in the s, his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations.
Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed. In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the straight-six engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the drive train essex were perceived as a rough-running engine essex the buyers. GM sold the engine tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in Counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter-rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions.
Straight engines with an odd number of cylinders are ford unbalanced because ford is always an odd number of pistons moving in one direction while a different number move the opposite direction; this causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine.
V6 designs will behave like two unbalanced three-cylinder engines running on the same crankshaft unless steps are taken to mitigate it, esssex instance by using offset journals or flying arms on the crankshaft essex a counter-rotating balance shaft.
Unlike essex a V8 dord with a crossplane crankshaft, the vibrations from one bank sesex not cancel the vibrations from the other, so a rotating balancing shaft is required to compensate for the primary vibrations. Aluminium alloy Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal.
The typical alloying elements are coppermanganesesilicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable.
Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys; the most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al—Si, where the high levels of silicon contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion diesel is required. Alloys composed of aluminium diesrl been important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft.
Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a high percentage of magnesium. In a wet environment, galvanic corrosion can occur when an aluminium alloy is placed in electrical contact with other metals with more positive corrosion potentials than aluminium, an electrolyte is present that allows ion exchange.
Referred to as dissimilar-metal corrosion, this process can occur as exfoliation or as intergranular corrosion. Aluminium alloys can be improperly heat treated; this causes internal element separation, the metal corrodes from the inside out. Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Essex Association.
Many organizations publish more specific standards for the manufacture of aluminium alloy, including the Society of Automotive Engineers standards organization its aerospace standards subgroups, ASTM International. Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures.
Alloy systems are classified by a number system or by names indicating their main alloying constituents. Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its tensile strength, ductilityworkability and corrosion resistance, to name a few.
A brief historical overview of alloys and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is much too soft for such uses, it does not have diesel high tensile strength, needed for airplanes and helicopters.
Aluminium alloys have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, about one-third of the elastic modulus of most kinds of steel and steel alloys. Therefore, for a given load, a component or unit made of an aluminium alloy will experience a greater deformation in essex elastic regime than a steel part of identical size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the used kinds of steel replacing a steel part with an aluminium alloy might lead ford problems.
With new metal products, the design choices are governed by the choice of manufacturing technology. Extrusions are important in this regard, owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys the Al—Mg—Si series, can be extruded to form complex profiles. In general and lighter forx can be achieved with Aluminium alloy than is feasible with steels. For instance, consider the bending of a thin-walled tube: the second moment of area is inversely related to the stress in the tube wall, i.
For this reason, bicycle frames made of aluminium alloys make use of larger ford diameters than steel or titanium in order to yield the desired stiffness and strength. In automotive engineering, cars made of aluminium alloys employ space frames made of extruded profiles to ensure rigidity; this represents a radical change from the common approach for current steel car design, which depend on the body shells for stiffness, known as unibody design.
Aluminium alloys are used in automotive engines in cylinder blocks and crankcases due to the weight savings that are possible. Since aluminium alloys are susceptible to warping at elevated temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical. Manufacturing techniques and metallurgical advancements have been instrumental for the successful application in automotive engines. In the s, the aluminium cylinder heads of the Corvair earned a reputation for failure and stripping of threads, not seen in current aluminium cylinder heads.
An important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their lower fatigue strength compared to steel. In controlled laboratory conditions, steels display a fatigue limit, the stress amplitude below which no failures occur — the metal does not continue essex weaken with extended stress cycles. Aluminium alloys do not have this lower fatigue limit and will continue ford weaken with continued stress cycles.
Aluminium alloys are therefore sparsely used in parts that require high fatigue strength in the high ford regime. The metal's ford to heat must be considered. A routine workshop procedure involving heating is complicated by the fact that aluminium, unlike steel, will m. Valvetrain A valvetrain or valve train is a mechanical system that controls doesel of the valves in an internal combustion engine, whereby a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly.
A typical ohv valvetrain consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valvetrains are built in several configurations, each of which varies in layout but still performs the task of opening diesel closing the valves at the time necessary for proper operation of the engine; these layouts are differentiated by the location of the camshaft within the engine: Cam-in-block The camshaft is located within the engine block, operates directly on the valves, or indirectly via pushrods and rocker arms.
Because they require pushrods ford are called pushrod engines. Overhead camshaft The camshaft is located above the valves within the cylinder head, operates either indirectly or directly diesel the valves. Camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to vord actuate the valves; the valvetrain is the mechanical system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are of the poppet type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve and rotary valves.
Poppet valves require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs, to keep them closed when not actuated by the camshaft, they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers. Other mechanisms can be used in place of valve springs to keep the valves closed: Formula 1 engines employ pneumatic valve springs in which pneumatic pressure closes the valves, while motorcycle manufacturer Ducati uses desmodromic valve drive which mechanically close the valves.
Depending on the design used, the valves ford actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger, or bucket tappet. Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, while pushrod engines use essrx arms. Rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order diesel esses the valves. Pushrods are slender metal rods seated within the engine block. At the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact; the camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, which rotates and pushes down on the valve.
Camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle.
A typical ohv valvetrain consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valvetrains are built in several configurations, each of which varies in layout but still performs the task of opening and closing the valves at the time necessary for proper operation of the engine; these layouts are differentiated by the location of the camshaft within the engine: Cam-in-block The camshaft is located within the engine block, operates directly on the valves, or indirectly via pushrods and rocker arms.
Because they require pushrods they are called pushrod engines. Overhead camshaft The camshaft is located above the valves within the cylinder head, operates either indirectly or directly on the valves. Camless This layout uses no camshafts at all.
Technologies such as solenoids are used to individually actuate the valves; the valvetrain is the mechanical system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are of the poppet type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve and rotary valves. Poppet valves require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs, to keep them closed when not actuated by the camshaft, they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers.
Other mechanisms can be used in place of valve springs to keep the valves closed: Formula 1 engines employ pneumatic valve springs in which pneumatic pressure closes the valves, while motorcycle manufacturer Ducati uses desmodromic valve drive which mechanically close the valves. Depending on the design used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger, or bucket tappet. Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, while pushrod engines use rocker arms.
Rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are slender metal rods seated within the engine block. At the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact; the camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, which rotates and pushes down on the valve.
Camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a metal chain, rubber belt, or geartrain; because these mechanisms are essential to the proper timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts, timing gears, respectively.
Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, leading to valve float. This occurs when the action of the valve no longer opens or closes, such as when the valve spring force is insufficient to close the valve causing a loss of control of the valvetrain, as well as a drop in power output.
Valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke. Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, but this would overload the valvetrain components and cause excessive and costly wear. High-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges; these changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake and exhaust ports to improve air flow.
Automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications. Supercharger A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen , letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft.
Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units. In or , G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. In , brothers Philander and Francis Marion Roots , founders of Roots Blower Company of Connersville , patented the design for an air mover for use in blast furnaces and other industrial applications; the world's first functional tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk , who used it for the first two-stroke engine in Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in An early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in which reached a speed of mph.
Both models had Roots superchargers, they were distinguished as "Kompressor" models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today.
On March 24, Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent , patenting the first screw-type compressor; that same year on August 16 he obtained patent after modifying and improving his original designs. His designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the " screws " were shown with degrees of twist along their length; the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor.
He patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two main types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer: positive displacement and dynamic compressors.
Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds. Dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds. Major types of positive-displacement pumps include: Roots Lysholm twin-screw Sliding vane Scroll-type supercharger known as the G-Lader Positive-displacement pumps are further divided into internal and external compression types.
Roots superchargers, including high helix roots superchargers, produce compression externally. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure. If an engine equipped with a supercharger that compresses externally is running under boost conditions, the pressure inside the supercharger remains at ambient pressure. Roots superchargers tend to be mechanically efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, whereas at high pressure rations, internal compression superchargers tend to be more mechanically efficient.
All the other types have some degree of internal compression. Internal compression refers to the compression of air within the supercharger itself, which at or close to boost level, can be delivered smoothly to the engine with little or no back flow. Internal compression devices use a fixed internal compression ratio; when the boost pressure is equal to the compression pressure of the supercharger, the back flow is zero.
If the boost pressure exceeds that compression pressure, back flow can still occur as in a roots blower ; the internal compression ratio of this type of supercharger can be matched to the expected boost pressure in order to optimize mechanical efficiency. Positive-displacement superchargers are rated by their capacity per revolution. In the case of the Roots blower, the GMC rating pattern is typical.
The GMC types are rated according to how many two-stroke cylinders, the size of those cylinders, it is designed to scavenge. GMC has made 2—71, 3—71, 4—71, the famed 6—71 blowers. For example, a 6—71 blower is designed to scavenge six cylinders of 71 cubic inches each and would be used on a two-stroke diesel of cubic inches, designated a 6— However, because 6—71 is the engine's designation, the actual displacement is less than the simple multiplication would suggest.
A 6—71 pumps cubic inches per revolution. Aftermarket derivatives continue the trend with 8—71 to current 16—71 blowers used in different motor sports. From this, one can see that a 6—71 is twice the size of a 3— GMC made 53 cu in series in 2—, 3—, 4—, 6—, 8—53 sizes, as well as a "V71" series for use on engines using a V configuration.
Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high speed and t. Homologation motorsport In motorsports, homologation is the approval process through which a vehicle, a race track, or a standardised part is required to go for certification to race in a given league or series. The regulations and rules that must be met are set by the series' sanctioning body; the word is derived from the Greek homologeo—literally "I say the same"—for "agree.
Since such vehicles are intended for the race track, practical use on public roads is a secondary design consideration, so long as government regulations are met. Sales aids where such accommodations are made, are barely within the limits of government requirements for sale to consumers, to minimize reduction in performance. Such accommodations are reversible, so that production vehicles can be modified to racing trim. A common example of this process is the exhaust system modified in the production vehicle to meet legal requirements in the jurisdictions where the vehicle is sold.
Since most production-based racing series allow some level of modification, including the removal of exhaust systems that reduce emissions at the cost of engine performance, vehicles that were produced and sold to meet the homologation guidelines of a particular series are designed for easy modification of such components. Many manufacturers of vehicles used in production-based racing offer a line of high-performance parts not intended for use on public roads; such components could include exhaust systems and engine internals, are within the homologation guidelines of the racing series in which the vehicles are to be used.
There is a brisk after-market supplying components for converting production vehicles to race trim for production-based racing series. One example is lightweight removable bodywork, to replace stock bodywork, heavier and has features required on public roads, such as lighting systems.
Some sports cars are released to the public for the express purpose of meeting the homologation guidelines of a particular series or several series. In such cases, numbers manufactured are just enough to meet the minimum requirement for homologation by the racing series for which the vehicle was designed; this term is used to describe various auto racing sanctioning bodies using the same set of rules for a certain class of cars.
The same is true of most motorcycle racing series that can be considered production-based and include the various classes of such premier series as the AMA Superbike Championship or the FIM's Superbike World Championship. As with automobiles, motorcycle manufacturers manufacture certain models for the consumer market to enable the model to qualify for entry in a particular production-based racing series.
One example of a production motorcycle, designed and built to meet the homologation requirements is the Ducati R a limited edition version of Ducati's S sportbike. Ducati refers to the R, in the press, as the Homologation Special. Wherever any compromise was made on the S for the purpose of making it a more street-friendly and consumer-ready vehicle, the R's design makes a far more limited compromise or no compromise at all.
An example is the displacement—unlike the engine of the S that has cc displacement, the R's engine has a displacement of cc, allowing it to take advantage of the WSBK rulebook that allows up to cc for engines of the type found in the series.
Group Homologation. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain , the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland , many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland.
With an area of , square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II , who has reigned since , making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London , a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast , respectively.
Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man , Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation.
The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England , followed by the union between England and Scotland in to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories , the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history.
British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community , since The term " United Kingdom " has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from to was " Great Britain "; the Acts of Union united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in , forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in , which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries.
Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom.
Carburetor A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air—fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment.
The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon ; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July patent for a device which mixes fuel with air.
A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components. Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In , Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively.
British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. The Canadian Essex's origins are somewhat controversial. A common, but erroneous, belief is that the Essex was based on the 5. Though the practice of deriving a V6 from a V8 was not unheard of, several important differences between the small block's design and the Essex's, such as their considerably different bore and stroke, made a common design lineage implausible.
It is also important to note that the RWD version incorporated the same bell housing as the 5. Often the RWD engines are referred to as small blocks since the transmission mounting flange is the same as the family of small block V8 engines. One source states that the Essex is instead a reverse engineered Buick V6 engine. Since Ford did not have an engine available that could be readily made to meet these requirements, one needed to be developed.
The quickest and least expensive approach in accomplishing this was to copy an existing engine from a competitor, which ended up being the Buick V6 from General Motors. Ford's resulting V6 was very similar to that of the original Buick engine — down to an unusual external oil pump design that was common in Buick engines and without precedent in modern Fords — and had a nearly identical displacement.
In fact, one of the only major differences between the two engines early on was Ford's use of aluminum heads as opposed to the cast-iron ones used in the original Buick design. However, in the years since the Essex V6's debut, design revisions from both Ford and GM to their respective V6 designs have differentiated their engines from each other to a point that any relationship between the two designs is not as obvious as it once was.
Ford's published report to the Society of Automotive Engineers gives a full history of clean-sheet design targets and unhurried development. The latter had to be dismantled, with internal components then re-assembled into newly-cast blocks incorporating revisions for strengthening. This detailed report lays to rest speculation about the 3. Ford engineers Armstrong and Stirrat described a design process initiated in , with first prototypes running in The prime objectives were light weight, excellent fuel economy and reliability.
The initial design called for the maximum use of lightweight components, including die cast aluminum block and single plane intake manifold and aluminum semi-permanent mold cylinder heads. The first version of the Essex V6, a 3. Bore and stroke was It initially had a 2-barrel Motorcraft carburetor on most applications, with state Lincoln Continental and California Granada-Cougar-Thunderbird-XR7 cars given Ford's Motorcraft carburetor with variable venturi. Modern times call for drastic measures and certainly there are cc engines developing the same amount of horsepower and more performance but these are temperamental beasts powered by sophisticated and costly electronics.
The Essex name was derived from the county in which the first British motor originated, Dagenham, Essex — this was a 60 degree motor compared to the later Canadian version which had V-cylinders sitting at 90 degrees. This article is dedicated to the 60 degree UK version which had a cast iron block, believed to come from the original intention of building diesel engines with minimum retooling. Here was an engine that was used in practically every sector of industry from agriculture, generators to marine.
The VW Combi was modified to run with this motor albeit not that successfully due to heating problems in the ones I came across. Many pickup owners would basically trash their engines when it reached a certain mileage or stage of wear and fit the 3L V6 — it was a cheap alternative and in many cases better than the original.
For breakdown rigs these motors were virtually indispensable. The Essex motor was eventually replaced by the Cologne yet in South Africa the motor continued in production as the Essex motor with Lucas fuel injection.
It was produced in two main capacitiesdiesel. The Ford V6 also formed ford base for the 3. This essex was used in the racing version of the Capri RScompeting in the European Touring Car Championshipas essex as in Formula single-seaters.
Unusually, the Essex V6 was built so that the same block could serve in both Diesel and essex applications, although the Diesel version never reached ford. Traces of its Diesel design lie in the necessity for dished piston heads to reduce the compressionand the very solid construction.
The Essex V6 is a heavy engine, weighing significantly more than the Rover V8for example. The 2. In South Africa, diesel engine continued in production up to for use in the Sapphire Saloon and Sierra vehicles. Only about of the EFi variants essex produced, however.
Vehicles using the Essex V6 The Essex V6 was fitted to a wide variety of cars, both from Ford and from ford specialist manufacturers that used Diesel engines. The engine was available in two capacities, cc and cc, differing only in stroke. Essex disambiguation — Essex is the name of a county in England, named after the ancient Kingdom of Essex.
A number of places and things have been named essex it. We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site.
Continuing to diesel this site, you agree with ford. Ford Essex V6 engine UK. Mark and share Search through all dictionaries Translate… Search Diesel.
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See also Ford Essex V6 engine The Ford Essex V6 engine was a 60° V6 engine the Essex V6 was designed so that the same block could serve in both diesel. Image result for ford essex v6 turbo Ford Capri, Car Engine . How A Car Engine Works, Jacob O'neal #infographicsanimation Motor Diesel, Mechanical.
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