Our Planet May Be Barreling Toward a Tipping Point
But how exactly are these females, who are unrelated and who disperse from their kin, able to form power coalitions in the first place? If human females lived under these conditions — a world that was female bonded, female affiliative, and female dominant, and where females had the freedom to be blatantly pleasure focused — then sex on college campuses would look very different indeed. What if human sexuality is more like bonobo sexuality than chimp sexuality?
Skip navigation! Story from Relationships. Female Power and Pleasure Go Together. Just Ask Bonobos Wednesday Martin. In the popular imagination, bonobos have a somewhat hippie-ish reputation. Amy Parish, a primatologist who has studied bonobos for her entire career, pointed out that this was happening as we observed them being fed in their enclosure at the San Diego Zoo many primatologists who study bonobos believe they behave basically the same way under human care and in their natural environment.
Only after getting down did they get down to the business of eating. Early in her career, Parish, who has blonde hair and wore heart-shaped sunglasses the first day we met, and whose voice has a sing-songy, So-Cal inflection, noted that bonobos were female affiliative, socially gregarious, and very sexual. She also quickly realized that females sex first, and got groomed more often than the males; and that there was a clear pattern of female-on-male violence.
Females swatted, chased, smacked, gouged, and bit males, who mostly seemed to know better bonobo to annoy them. Eventually, Parish observed a male in Frankfurt with only eight digits intact, and she learned of another male who had had his penis nearly severed from his body the vet was able to reattach it, and the male went on to have sex and successfully reproduce, though you have to wonder how good he felt about the females from then on.
Parish asked her mentor at the time, Franz De Waal, about it. Sure enough, of sex total of 25 serious injuries, 24 were inflicted on males. By females. That clinched it for Parish.
She realized that bonobos were female affiliative, female bonded, and, most extraordinarily of all, female dominant, sufficiently so that females eat first, are bonobo more often, and have the authority to attack males.
All this in spite of the males being physically larger and ensconced within a kin network of automatic allies female bonobos leave their families, their bonobo power base, at sexual sex, in order to join another troop and better bonobo in-breeding. Female bonobos manage to dominate males because they form coalitions of two or more whenever they perceive a male bonobo challenging them. In fact, Parish told me, when a female bonobo is solicited simultaneously by a female and a male, she will tend to pick the female other primatologists have observed this preference as well.
Sex my second day observing the bonobos with Parish, then-three-year-old Belle sat directly in front of us, sex up against the glass. She had a long piece of grass looped around her torso, like a necklace. Her legs were splayed, and she poked between them with one finger. She was playing with her clitoris, which was about the size of a large pencil eraser. Clearly, she was enjoying herself. Another day, Parish and I watched Belle mount her big sister Maddie, who was lying on her back; they indulged in some genital-to-genital swishing back and forth.
Females bonobo grinding and G-to-G-ing their way to establishing goodwill and connectedness, or reinforcing goodwill and connectedness already sex place, using sex to build a sisterhood of sorts. And bonobo sisterhood is powerful.
I was momentarily stunned by the simplicity and profundity of what Parish was asserting. Our closest non-human primate relatives are non-monogamous.
In fact, there are no alpha guys, because they are a society of alpha gals. And this is so mostly thanks to gals preferring sex with one another. It all begs a bonobo of questions about our world and the bonobo world, which we might think of as the original hookup culture. Affirmative consent, analyzed so thoroughly by Vanessa Grigoriadis in Blurred Lines and sex to millions of teens in the U.
Specifically, what if human female sexuality is as much informed by our bonobo sisters as it is by comparatively abject chimp females who risk violence when they themselves have multiple, rapidly sequential consorts during and also outside of estrus? The bonobo sisterhood is part of the arc bonobo humanness.
Are we ready to acknowledge it? It sounds slimy. I cringe and recoil at the sound of i. This story was originally published on February 27, Waking up and realizing you got in a drunken fight with your partner can feel worse than the phys. While being sad, confused and hurt at the end of a relationship is totally normal. When a relationship comes to an end, there are many forms of intimacy and companionship that you miss. That person you confide in, laugh with, fall asleep.
Bonobos have earned a reputation as a "sexy" ape. Sexual activity bonobo in many creative forms — plays a large role in bonobo society. Sexual contacts occur often, in virtually all partner combinations and in a slew of different positions.
Bonobo society is also known to be more egalitarian and peaceful, especially compared with their close relatives, chimpanzees. Aex, conflicts still arise in bonobo groups. I recently asked Zanna about watching bonobos boobo interpreting the role of sex in making up.
Q: How did you get interested in the role of sexual contacts in bonobos to begin with? Clay: Bonobos are unusual among mammals in sex they habitually use sexual contacts for purely social purposes, beyond their pure biological function.
Observing bonobos, it becomes clear that sex can play many roles in bonobo society—especially in resolving social tension—and so I became interested in its non-reproductive role, focusing especially bonkbo how sexual contacts are used bbonobo an alternative means to resolve bonovo conflicts. Rather than allowing a fight to escalate, it is interesting to compare, even to our own species, how bonobos employ sed contacts to diffuse tension and restore peace.
Q: Can you describe a little how you carried out this research? What was observing the bonobos like? Clay: I observed the bonobos across bonobo daytime and recorded any instances of social conflicts occurring bonobo the group.
Fights among bonobos can often be very complex and confusing to follow. The most difficult ones to interpret are these mass conflicts in which there is huge emotional contagion, and everyone loses control—suddenly, there are lots of bonobos piling up on top of one another, screaming, biting, pushing, shoving.
In such cases, I simply have to look on sex film as best I can and try to untangle the social dynamics later from the video clip. It's often easy to miss stuff when it's happening so fast, which is why video recording is so valuable for understanding these social events. Q: What sorts of reconciliation and consolation behaviors did you observe in bonobos?
Clay: Bonobos use a diverse set of behaviors to reconcile conflicts and console victims—among these are sexual contacts, such as touching of the genitals bonogo the hands or feet, genital rubbing between two individuals, and copulations. But there were also other, ssex familiar behaviors, such as embracing, patting, touching and stroking. Although we bonobo not include this in the analyses, simply sitting close by to someone after a fight bonobi serve to reconcile or console, a topic for future research.
Q: What were the four hypotheses regarding bonoho role of post-conflict sexual contacts that you tested? Clay: We tested four main hypotheses regarding post-conflict sexual contacts. Reproductive benefits, i.
Mediate food-conflicts, i. Repairing valuable bonds, i. Self-scratching is considered as a useful indicator of stress in primates and our observation data showed that victims receiving sexual forms of post-conflict contact had lower sex of self-scratching compared to other non-sexual behaviors, therefore supporting the hypothesis that sexual contacts may aid in alleviating stress.
We did not bonobo strong support for the other bonoho males were not more likely to sex sex to reproductively viable females H2conflicts over food were not more likely to result sdx sexual bonobo of post-conflict affiliation H3bonobo friends were not more likely to use sexual contacts compared to other non-sexual forms of contacts H4. Q: Why do you think bonobos use sexual contacts so frequently to relieve stress?
Clay: More research on the physiology and hormonal profiles of bonobos is needed to answer this question, but it seems that the sexual physiology of bonobos is closely related to their stress alleviation. This may be have to do with the rubbing of sexual organs causing reductions in cortisol levels in the blood or causing increases in 'bonding' hormones such bonlbo oxytocin or vasopressin. It is still rather a mystery why sex have evolved to use this additional tool for stress relief in addition to more common forms such as touching or embracing.
Nevertheless, although bonobos use sexual contacts especially frequently and habitually in stressful contexts, the relationship between stress and non-reproductive sexual contacts is actually quite widely observed across numerous animals, including humans of course.
For example, bonobk chimpanzees will mount one another during stressful events such as inter-group encounters with stranger chimpanzees.
Clay, Z. Sex sex strife: post-conflict sexual contacts in bonobos. A juvenile female bonobo engages in sexual contact bonobo a dominant female bonobo.
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But no one is sure exactly how this happened. It is also unclear whether bonobo sexuality became exaggerated only after their split from the human lineage or whether the behavior they exhibit today is the modern version of our common ancestor's sex play. Anthropologist Adrienne Zihlman of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who has used the evidence of fossil bones to argue that our earliest known non-ape ancestors, the australopithecines, had body proportions similar to those of bonobos, says, "The path of human evolution is not a straight line from either species, but what I think is important is that the bonobo information gives us more possibilities for looking at human origins.
Some anthropologists, however, are reluctant to include the details of bonobo life, such as wide-ranging sexuality and a strong sisterhood, into scenarios of human evolution. Our divergent, non-ape path has led us away from sex and toward a culture that denies the connection between sex and social cohesion.
But bonobos, with their versatile sexuality, are here to remind us that our heritage may very well include a primordial urge to make love, not war. Standing upright is not a position usually—or easily—associated with sex. Among people, at least, anatomy and gravity prove to be forbidding obstacles. Yet our two-legged stance may be the key to a distinctive aspect of human sexuality: the independence of women's sexual desires from a monthly calendar.
Males in the two species most closely related to us, chimpanzees and bonobos, don't spend a lot of time worrying, "Is she interested or not? When ovulatory hormones reach a monthly peak in female chimps and bonobos, and their eggs are primed for fertilization, their genital area swells up, and both sexes appear to have just one thing on their mind. Women, however, don't go into heat. And this departure from our relatives' sexual behavior has long puzzled researchers.
Clear signals of fertility and the willingness to do something about it bring major evolutionary advantages: ripe eggs lead to healthier pregnancies, which leads to more of your genes in succeeding generations, which is what evolution is all about. In addition, male chimps give females that are waving these red flags of fertility first chance at high-protein food such as meat. So why would our ancestors give this up? Szalay and graduate student Robert Costello have a simple explanation.
Women gave heat up, they say, because our ancestors stood up. Fossil footprints indicate that somewhere around 3. We don't know what it was," Szalay says. Swollen genital areas that were visible when their owners were down on all fours became hidden between the legs.
The mating signal was lost. Males wouldn't notice them, and the swellings themselves, which get quite large, must have made it hard for two-legged creatures to walk around. Those who found a way out of this quandary, Szalay suggests, were females with small swellings but with a little less hair on their rears and a little extra fat. It would have looked a bit like the time-honored mating signal. They got more attention, and produced more offspring.
If there was an ever-so-little advantage because, quite simply, you look good, it would be selected for. And if a little nakedness and a little fat worked well, Szalay speculates, then a lot of both would work even better. That's what happens in horns with sheep. It's a particular part of the body that brings an advantage. Since these features were permanent, unlike the monthly ups and downs of swellings, sex was free to become a part of daily life.
Anthropologist Helen Fisher of the American Museum of Natural History notes that Szalay is merely assuming that fleshy buttocks evolved because they were sex signals. Yet their mass really comes from muscles, which chimps don't have, that are associated with walking. And anthropologist Sarah Blaffer Hrdy of the University of California at Davis points to a more fundamental problem: our ancestors may not have had chimplike swellings that they needed to dispense with.
Chimps and bonobos are only two of about primate species, and the vast majority of those species don't have big swellings. Though they are our closest relatives, chimps and bonobos have been evolving during the last 5 million years just as we have, and swollen genitals may be a recent development.
The current unswollen human pattern may be the ancestral one. You pays your money and you takes your choice. X Account Login Forgot your password? Register for an account X Enter your name and email address below. X Website access code Enter your access code into the form field below. Apply code If you are a Zinio, Nook, Kindle, Apple, or Google Play subscriber, you can enter your website access code to gain subscriber access. The Sciences.
Planet Earth. Learn more about our new website. Small June 1, AM. Newsletter Sign up for our email newsletter for the latest science news. Sign Up. My Science Shop Elements Flashcards. My Science Shop Einstein's Universe. My Science Shop Observer's Handbook Shop Now. Stay Curious. The name is thought to derive from a misspelling on a shipping crate from the town of Bolobo on the Congo River near the location from which the first bonobo specimens were collected in the s.
Fossils of Pan species were not described until Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa. However, Pan fossils have now been reported from Kenya. This would indicate that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene.
Zihlman, bonobo body proportions closely resemble those of Australopithecus ,  leading evolutionary biologist Jeremy Griffith to suggest that bonobos may be a living example of our distant human ancestors. German anatomist Ernst Schwarz is credited with being the first to scientifically recognise the bonobo as being distinctive, in , based on his analysis of a skull in the Tervuren museum in Belgium that previously had been thought to have belonged to a juvenile chimpanzee. Schwarz published his findings in The first official publication of the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome became publicly available in June Studies showed that chimpanzees and bonobos are more closely related to humans than to gorillas.
There still is controversy, however. Scientists such as Jared Diamond in The Third Chimpanzee , and Morris Goodman  of Wayne State University in Detroit suggest that the bonobo and common chimpanzee are so closely related to humans that their genus name also should be classified with the human genus Homo : Homo paniscus , Homo sylvestris , or Homo arboreus.
An alternative philosophy suggests that the term Homo sapiens is the misnomer rather, and that humans should be reclassified as Pan sapiens , though this would violate the Principle of Priority , as Homo was named before Pan for the former, for the latter.
In either case, a name change of the genus would have implications on the taxonomy of extinct species closely related to humans, including Australopithecus. The current line between Homo and non- Homo species is drawn about 2. DNA evidence suggests the bonobo and common chimpanzee species diverged approximately 0.
As no species other than Homo sapiens has survived from the human line of that branching, both Pan species are the closest living relatives of humans and cladistically are equally close to humans. The recent genome data confirms the genetic equidistance. The bonobo is commonly considered to be more gracile than the common chimpanzee.
Although large male chimpanzees can exceed any bonobo in bulk and weight, the two species actually broadly overlap in body size. Adult female bonobos are somewhat smaller than adult males. It has a black face with pink lips, small ears, wide nostrils, and long hair on its head that forms a parting. Females have slightly more prominent breasts, in contrast to the flat breasts of other female apes, although not so prominent as those of humans.
The bonobo also has a slim upper body, narrow shoulders, thin neck, and long legs when compared to the common chimpanzee. Bonobos are both terrestrial and arboreal. Most ground locomotion is characterized by quadrupedal knuckle walking.
Bipedal walking in captivity, as a percentage of bipedal plus quadrupedal locomotion bouts, has been observed from 3. The bonobo also has highly individuated facial features,  as humans do, so that one individual may look significantly different from another, a characteristic adapted for visual facial recognition in social interaction.
Multivariate analysis has shown bonobos are more neotenized than the common chimpanzee, taking into account such features as the proportionately long torso length of the bonobo. Primatologist Frans de Waal states bonobos are capable of altruism , compassion , empathy , kindness, patience, and sensitivity ,  and described "bonobo society" as a " gynecocracy ".
An analysis of female bonding among wild bonobos by Takeshi Furuichi stresses female sexuality and shows how female bonobos spend much more time in estrus than female chimpanzees.
Some primatologists have argued that de Waal's data reflect only the behavior of captive bonobos, suggesting that wild bonobos show levels of aggression closer to what is found among chimpanzees. De Waal has responded that the contrast in temperament between bonobos and chimpanzees observed in captivity is meaningful, because it controls for the influence of environment. The two species behave quite differently even if kept under identical conditions.
The authors argued that the relative peacefulness of western chimpanzees and bonobos was primarily due to ecological factors. Many studies indicate that females have a higher social status in bonobo society. Aggressive encounters between males and females are rare, and males are tolerant of infants and juveniles. A male derives his status from the status of his mother. While social hierarchies do exist, and although the son of a high ranking female may outrank a lower female, rank plays a less prominent role than in other primate societies.
Due to the promiscuous mating behavior of female bonobos, a male cannot be sure which offspring are his. As a result, the entirety of parental care in bonobos is assumed by the mothers. Bonobo party size tends to vary because the groups exhibit a fission—fusion pattern. A community of approximately will split into small groups during the day while looking for food, and then will come back together to sleep.
They sleep in nests that they construct in trees. Sexual activity generally plays a major role in bonobo society, being used as what some scientists perceive as a greeting , a means of forming social bonds, a means of conflict resolution , and postconflict reconciliation.
Bonobos do not form permanent monogamous sexual relationships with individual partners. They also do not seem to discriminate in their sexual behavior by sex or age, with the possible exception of abstaining from sexual activity between mothers and their adult sons.
When bonobos come upon a new food source or feeding ground, the increased excitement will usually lead to communal sexual activity, presumably decreasing tension and encouraging peaceful feeding.
Bonobo clitorises are larger and more externalized than in most mammals;  while the weight of a young adolescent female bonobo "is maybe half" that of a human teenager, she has a clitoris that is "three times bigger than the human equivalent, and visible enough to waggle unmistakably as she walks". This sexual activity happens within the immediate female bonobo community and sometimes outside of it. Ethologist Jonathan Balcombe stated that female bonobos rub their clitorises together rapidly for ten to twenty seconds, and this behavior, "which may be repeated in rapid succession, is usually accompanied by grinding, shrieking, and clitoral engorgement"; he added that it is estimated that they engage in this practice "about once every two hours" on average.
Bonobo males engage in various forms of male—male genital behavior. Another form of genital interaction rump rubbing often occurs to express reconciliation between two males after a conflict, when they stand back-to-back and rub their scrotal sacs together, but such behavior also occurs outside agonistic contexts: Kitamura observed rump—rump contacts between adult males following sexual solicitation behaviors similar to those between female bonobos prior to GG-rubbing. Tongue kissing, oral sex, and genital massaging have also been recorded among male bonobos.
More often than the males, female bonobos engage in mutual genital behavior, possibly to bond socially with each other, thus forming a female nucleus of bonobo society. The bonding among females enables them to dominate most of the males. This migration mixes the bonobo gene pools , providing genetic diversity. Sexual bonding with other females establishes these new females as members of the group. Bonobo reproductive rates are no higher than those of the common chimpanzee.
The gestation period is on average days. Postpartum amenorrhea absence of menstruation lasts less than one year and a female may resume external signs of oestrus within a year of giving birth, though the female is probably not fertile at this point. Female bonobos carry and nurse their young for four years and give birth on average every 4. Also, bonobo females which are sterile or too young to reproduce still engage in sexual activity.
Mothers will help their sons get more matings from females in oestrus. It is unknown how the bonobo avoids simian immunodeficiency virus SIV and its effects. Observations in the wild indicate that the males among the related common chimpanzee communities are hostile to males from outside the community. Parties of males 'patrol' for the neighboring males that might be traveling alone, and attack those single males, often killing them.
Between groups, social mingling may occur, in which members of different communities have sex and groom each other, behavior which is unheard of among common chimpanzees.
Conflict is still possible between rival groups of bonobos, but no official scientific reports of it exist. The ranges of bonobos and chimpanzees are separated by the Congo River, with bonobos living to the south of it, and chimpanzees to the north. Recent studies show that there are significant brain differences between bonobos and chimps. The brain anatomy of bonobos has more developed and larger regions assumed to be vital for feeling empathy, sensing distress in others and feeling anxiety, which makes them less aggressive and more empathic than their close relatives.
They also have a thick connection between the amygdala , an important area that can spark aggression, and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, which helps control impulses. This thicker connection may make them better at regulating their emotional impulses and behavior. Bonobo society is dominated by females, and severing the lifelong alliance between mothers and their male offspring may make them vulnerable to female aggression.
There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony. Surbeck and Hohmann showed in that bonobos sometimes do hunt monkey species.
Five incidents were observed in a group of bonobos in Salonga National Park , which seemed to reflect deliberate cooperative hunting. On three occasions, the hunt was successful, and infant monkeys were captured and eaten.
Bonobos are capable of passing the mirror-recognition test for self-awareness ,  as are all great apes. They communicate primarily through vocal means, although the meanings of their vocalizations are not currently known. However, most humans do understand their facial expressions  and some of their natural hand gestures, such as their invitation to play. The communication system of wild bonobos includes a characteristic that was earlier only known in humans: bonobos use the same call to mean different things in different situations, and the other bonobos have to take the context into account when determining the meaning.
Q: What were the four hypotheses regarding the role of post-conflict sexual contacts that you tested? Clay: We tested four main hypotheses regarding post-conflict sexual contacts. Reproductive benefits, i. Mediate food-conflicts, i. Repairing valuable bonds, i. Self-scratching is considered as a useful indicator of stress in primates and our observation data showed that victims receiving sexual forms of post-conflict contact had lower rates of self-scratching compared to other non-sexual behaviors, therefore supporting the hypothesis that sexual contacts may aid in alleviating stress.
We did not find strong support for the other hypotheses; males were not more likely to offer sex to reproductively viable females H2 , conflicts over food were not more likely to result in sexual forms of post-conflict affiliation H3 , and friends were not more likely to use sexual contacts compared to other non-sexual forms of contacts H4. Q: Why do you think bonobos use sexual contacts so frequently to relieve stress? Clay: More research on the physiology and hormonal profiles of bonobos is needed to answer this question, but it seems that the sexual physiology of bonobos is closely related to their stress alleviation.
This may be have to do with the rubbing of sexual organs causing reductions in cortisol levels in the blood or causing increases in 'bonding' hormones such as oxytocin or vasopressin. It is still rather a mystery why bonobos have evolved to use this additional tool for stress relief in addition to more common forms such as touching or embracing. Nevertheless, although bonobos use sexual contacts especially frequently and habitually in stressful contexts, the relationship between stress and non-reproductive sexual contacts is actually quite widely observed across numerous animals, including humans of course.
For example, male chimpanzees will mount one another during stressful events such as inter-group encounters with stranger chimpanzees. Clay, Z. Sex and strife: post-conflict sexual contacts in bonobos.
A juvenile female bonobo engages in sexual contact with a dominant female bonobo. Photo: Zanna Clay.
These apes supposedly have inordinate amounts of sex and never fight. Can this appealing story really be true? Reputation: Bonobos are miniature, sharing, caring chimps, living in hippie communes with no aggression and lots of sex. Reality: Not really. Bonobos are roughly the same size as chimps, can be aggressive and use sex in very specific contexts. Bonobos Pan paniscus used to be known as "pygmy chimpanzees", a designation that served to distinguish them from regular chimps Pan troglodytes.
But the difference in body size is small — only a matter of a few kilograms — and it certainly is not the most interesting difference between the species. Takayoshi Kano was one of the first to document the central position of females in bonobo society. Sex their sex is not the thing that really sets bonobos apart from chimps. The most striking difference is the status and dominance sex females.
In the mids, Japanese primatologist Takayoshi Kano was one of the first to sex the central position of females in bonobo society. This contrasts with chimpanzees, where females tend to spend a lot of bonobo marginalised at the edge of the community.
This typically lasted for less than 20 seconds, and occasionally for over a minute. When males and females copulated, Kano recorded that in around one-third of cases, the pair would adopt the missionary position. In a few instance, he saw females mating with different males and sometimes with juveniles or infants. This is all true, but the bonobo fascination with sex behaviours has given rise to a view of bonobos that is a little extreme, says Zanna Clay of the University of Birmingham in the UK, who has spent years studying wild bonobos.
The reality is more nuanced. The frequency of copulation in bonobos sfx not as high as most people assume, she says. The genital rubbing and touching is very common, but it only sex in very specific contexts, often ones that are not obviously sexual. For instance, when a group arrives at a new feeding tree, there is tension sex who is going to make the richest pickings. Females will also often use genital rubbing to defuse tension between two rival groups, avoiding the kinds of violence seen in chimp wars.
But this does not mean that bonobos are incapable of aggression. Things can get particularly nasty in zoos, where the artificial set-up can let females assume more power than they normally bonobo in sex wild. These bonobo females can be pretty violent towards males, says Clay. If a dominant female has a son, he will benefit from her position in society. Inresearchers found that swx helped their xex bonobo get closer to and more matings with estrus females. Finally, males also engage in sex-like behaviours, roughly analogous to the genital rubbing of females.
Nobody is quite sure sdx bonobos bonobo up so different bonobo chimpanzees, especially as a genetic analysis suggests the two species have only been charting distinct evolutionary pathways for less than one million years. However, a cursory inspection of the distribution of chimpanzees and bonobos across Africa strongly suggests a sexx for the Congo Sex.
If you were to sit on a raft and drift downriver towards the Atlantic Ocean, you would find chimpanzees occupying the right bank and bonobos on the left. Inhe and his colleagues, writing in Evolutionary Anthropologyproposed that when the Bonobo River formed around 34 million years ago, all the apes were on the right bank.
But sediments suggest that the flow of water was much sex around one million years ago, so a pioneering band of apes could have reached the left bank. The social and sexual differences between chimps and bonobos might have their origin in this moment, says Furuichi. This is very different bonboo the relatively limited sexuality of female chimps, bonobi could have arisen as a result of just a few genetic changes in that founding population, says Furuichi.
With many females sexually active at once, there would have been less and less competition between males, until eventually the bonobo took control. The rest, as they say, is evolutionary history. If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly bbc. Earth Menu. Share on Bonobo. Share on Twitter.
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The bonobo also historically called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile . Sexual activity generally plays a major role in bonobo society, being used as what some scientists perceive as a greeting, a means of forming. Bonobos have earned a reputation as a "sexy" ape. Sexual activity — in many creative forms — plays a large role in bonobo society. Sexual.
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