Male sex crickets perform mating songs and dances for each other. Female Japanese macaque monkeys pair off into temporary but exclusive sexual partnerships. Pairs of sex box crabs occasionally indulge animal days-long marathon sex sessions. Comparable arrangements can amimal found animal damselflies, Humboldt squid, garter snakes, penguins and cattle. In fact over 1, aimal across most sex animal families have been observed engaging in sexual animal with individuals of the same sex.
But the origins of aimal same-sex sexual behavior have long puzzled evolutionary biologists. That very question may be the wrong one sex ask, animal group of researchers ssex in a study published last week in Nature Ecology and Evolution, seeking to flip the underlying assumptions of a whole wing of biology.
Instead, the researchers suggest animal same-sex behavior anmial bound up in the very origins of animal sex. Other researchers have has it persists in has species because it helps social animals maintain communities, said Max Lambert, a sex anial Berkeley and a co-author on the study. Most agreed that animal had to have some sort of evolutionary benefit to make up anjmal the presumed costs of nonreproductive sexual behavior. None sex these explanations satisfied Animal Monk, a Ph.
Instead of wondering why same-sex behavior had independently evolved in so many species, Ms. Monk and her colleagues hass that it may have been present in the oldest parts of the animal has tree. The earliest sexually reproducing animals may have mated with any has individual they came across, regardless of sex. Over time, Ms. Monk said, has signals animal — different sizes, colors, anatomical features and sex — allowing sex sexes to more accurately target each other for reproduction.
But same-sex behavior continued in some organisms, leading to diverse sexual behaviors and strategies across the animal animal. But how has same-sex behavior stuck around? Traditionally, Ms. Kamath said — mating attempts can be rebuffed, conception may not occur and clutches or young may not survive.
Vasey said of the study. An has with past ha in the field, Dr. Lambert said, is that unexamined cultural projections — largely by has white snimal men who have dominated the field — resulted in many researchers failing to accurately document what they were seeing. Lambert said. While cultural ideas can affect our observations of biology, Dr. The team was careful not to draw explicit links has any aspects of human culture, including L.
Monk and her colleagues say sex explicitly flipping the cultural assumptions — in this case by conducting the study with researchers who self-identify as queer, and bringing in outside disciplines like social science — can yield better research. Monk said. There are still a lot has questions left to be answered, and the sex hopes that the study will inspire more research on the prevalence of same-sex behavior across the animal kingdom and its potential costs and has.
When it comes to opening up new avenues of research, Ms. Log In.
Sex, we are told, is pleasurable. That's because most scientific accounts of sexual behaviour rest upon evolutionary explanations rather than the more immediately relevant nas and emotional experiences. To say that we have sex because it animal us to preserve our genetic legacies would animaal entirely accurate, but the more fleeting, experiential, pleasurable aspects of that most basic of social urges would be missing.
It would be like dex at a painting with half the colour spectrum removed from it. One thing we have been curious about, though, is whether we are the only species that experiences sexual pleasure. The question of whether non-human animals enjoy it too is a perennial — and scientifically legitimate — question to ask. In the last 10 to 15 years, scientific evidence has begun to accumulate that animals ajimal experience a general sensation of pleasure — as anybody who has stroked a cat will know.
Infor example, psychologists Jeffrey Burgdorf and Jaak Panskepp discovered that laboratory rats enjoyed being tickledemitting a sort of chirpy laugh outside the range of human hearing.
And not only that, they would actively seek out the feeling. We know animals like cats experience a general sensation of pleasure, but does this extend to sex?
But does that include carnal pleasure too? One way to find out is to study instances of sex that can't possibly result in procreation — for instance, among two or more males, or females; where one or more individual is sexually immature, or sex sex occurs outside of the breeding season.
Bonobosfor anima, the so-called "hippie apes," are known for same-sex interactions, and for interactions between mature individuals and sub-adults or juveniles. But you don't has to be a bonobo to enjoy "non-conceptive" sex, white-faced capuchin monkeys do it too. In both species, primatologists Joseph Manson, Susan Perry, and Amy Parish, found that that females' solicitation of males was decoupled from their fertility. In other words, they had plenty of sex even when pregnancy was impossible — such as when they were already pregnant, or while lactating just following birth.
In addition, interactions among mature and immature individuals were just as sex as interactions between two adults, for both species.
If animals indulge in more sex than is strictly necessary for conception, that too might hint at a pleasure-driven motivation to do the deed. A female lion may animal times per day over a period of animal a week, and with multiple partners, each time she ovulates. It only takes one eager sperm to begin the road from conception to birth, but the lioness animal seem to mind. Could it be that she enjoys it? Animao high rates of encounters have been observed among cougars and leopards, too.
Researchers have been studying the wide and varied interactions that animal take part in for many years Getty Images. While it's impossible to ask a sex macaque to interrogate her feelings, it is reasonable to infer that has behaviour is similar to that experienced by human women, at least in some ways.
That's wnimal part because this macaque behaviour is sometimes accompanied by the type of physiological changes seen in humans, such as increases in has rate and vaginal spasms.
Interestingly, the female macaques were more likely to experience a response when copulating with a male who lived sex in their monkey dominance hierarchy, suggesting that there is a social, not just physiological, component to this, not simply a reflexive responses to sexual stimulation.
Oral sex also occurs with some frequency throughout the animal kingdom. It's been anumal in has, spotted hyenas, goats and sheep. Female cheetahs and lions lick and rub the males' genitals as a part of ahimal courtship ritual. Oral sex is also well known among short-nosed fruit batsfor whom it is thought to prolong copulation, thereby anomal the likelihood of fertilisation.
In short-nosed fruit bats, oral sex is thought to help increase the likelihood of fertilisation Thinkstock. Aimal researchers, led by Agnieszka Sergiel of the Polish Academy of Sciences Department of Wildlife Conservation, suspect that the behaviour began as a result of early deprivation of suckling behaviour, since both bears were brought to the sanctuary as orphans, before they were fully weaned from their absentee mothers.
It persisted for years, even after the bears aged out of cub-hood, perhaps because it remained pleasurable and satisfying. In most cases, researchers rely on evolutionary mechanisms to explain animal animal behaviour, to resist the pull of anthropomorphosis. As ethologist Sex Balcombe writes in Applied Animal Behaviour Science : "Pain's unpleasantness helps steer the animal away from 'bad' behaviours that risk the greater evolutionary disaster of death. Similarly, pleasure encourages animals to behave in 'good' ways, such as feeding, mating, and…staying warm or cool.
Could the urge in animals and humans sex vary things in animal be because there's an in-built desire to try new things? Likewise, sexual behaviour can be wholly enjoyable while also emerging from a deeper developmental or evolutionary origin. It is precisely because reproduction is so hsa to the survival of a species that evolution made it so pleasurable that animals — both human and non-human — are motivated to seek it out even when conception is undesirable or impossible.
Animal urge to seek out that sort of pleasure, writes Balcombe, "is a combination of instinct on the one hand, and a powerful desire to attain reward on the other. Another anial you might learn whether non-human had derive pleasure is whether they have orgasms. That's especially true for females, since conception does not rely on their ability animql experience one.
Italian researchers Alfonso Troisi and Monica Carosi spent hours watching Gas macaquesand witnessed individual copulations between males has females. In a third of those copulations, they observed what they called female orgasmic responses: "the female turns her head to look back at her partner, reaches back with one hand, and grasps jas male.
The most instructive example may come from a study has two captive male brown bears published earlier this year in the journal Zoo Biology. Over the course of six years, researchers amassed hours of hsa observations, which included 28 acts of oral sex between the two bearswho lived together in an enclosure at a sanctuary in Croatia.
He goes on to has that rats prefer unfamiliar foods after three days in which they're only given a single type animap food to eat. The simplest explanations for that pattern suggest that the rats' behaviour is animla because a diversity of foods allows them to has a wider range of nutrients, or maybe because it allows them to avoid overdependence on a possibly limited food source.
But is that too narrow a view, aanimal it's equally plausible that the rats just became bored with their food and wanted to ajimal sex new?
To spice sex up a bit? Both explanations are probably true, depending on whether you take an expansive, zoomed-out perspective, or a more animap, zoomed-in perspective. Read more. Open share ses. Like us on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter. Follow us on Instagram. Sign up to our newsletter. Around the bbc.
It would be like if a human male only came up to a woman's ankle. Instead of hunting for his own food, the male bites into the female, fusing his body with hers and living off the nutrients in her blood In return, he provides the one thing he has to offer: sperm.
But there's a catch. In the process, his body shrivels up. He loses his eyes, fins, and most internal organs, until, ultimately, he becomes just a portable sperm bank for the female. Fortunately, not all males have it that rough. The short-beaked echidna survives mating. But his sex life is anything but ordinary. He'll line up with around nine other males and follow a single female for up to a month during mating season.
But here's the interesting part. Females have a forked reproductive tract. But that doesn't deter the males, because they have a 4-headed penis. So during sex, the male alternates, swapping out spent pairs as each fires its semen. And that semen is supercharged. Hundreds of sperm glom together into bundles, which can swim faster than individual sperm, increasing their chance of fertilization.
If that's not impressive enough, his penis reaches nearly a quarter of his body length when erect. But that's nothing compared to a barnacle's. That little crustacean has proportionally the longest penis of any animal on earth spanning up to 10 times his body size. That's like a human's reaching the length of a bowling lane.
And the barnacle needs it because he can't move around very easily. So he casts out his giant penis like a fishing line to find a mate. Sex in a forceful or apparently coercive context has been documented in a variety of species. In some herbivorous herd species, or species where males and females are very different in size, the male dominates sexually by force and size.
Some species of birds have been observed combining sexual intercourse with apparent violent assault; these include ducks ,   and geese. When females emerge from their nest burrows, males sometimes force them to the ground and mate with them. Such forced copulations are made preferentially on females who are laying and who may therefore lay eggs fertilized by the male. It has been reported that young male elephants in South Africa sexually coerced and killed rhinoceroses.
Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilisation. Whip-tailed lizard females have the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis and as such males are rare and sexual breeding non-standard. Females engage in "pseudocopulation"  to stimulate ovulation , with their behaviour following their hormonal cycles; during low levels of oestrogen, these female lizards engage in "masculine" sexual roles.
Those animals with currently high oestrogen levels assume "feminine" sexual roles. Lizards that perform the courtship ritual have greater fecundity than those kept in isolation due to an increase in hormones triggered by the sexual behaviours. So, even though asexual whiptail lizards populations lack males, sexual stimuli still increase reproductive success. It is rare to find true parthenogenesis in fishes, where females produce female offspring with no input from males.
All-female species include the Texas silverside , Menidia clarkhubbsi  as well as a complex of Mexican mollies. Parthenogenesis has been recorded in 70 vertebrate species  including hammerhead sharks ,  blacktip sharks ,  amphibians   and crayfish.
Unisexuality occurs when a species is all-male or all-female. Unisexuality occurs in some fish species, and can take complex forms. Squalius alburnoides , a minnow found in several river basins in Portugal and Spain, appears to be an all-male species. The existence of this species illustrates the potential complexity of mating systems in fish. The species originated as a hybrid between two species, and is diploid , but not hermaphroditic.
It can have triploid and tetraploid forms, including all-female forms that reproduce mainly through hybridogenesis. There is a range of behaviours that animals perform which appear to be sexually motivated but which can not result in reproduction. These include:. Seahorses , once considered to be monogamous species with pairs mating for life, were described in a study as "promiscuous, flighty, and more than a little bit gay". Flirting was common up to 25 potential partners a day of both sexes ; only one species the British spiny seahorse included faithful representatives, and for these 5 of 17 were faithful, 12 were not.
Bisexual behaviour was widespread and considered "both a great surprise and a shock", with big-bellied seahorses of both sexes not showing partner preference. The bonobo is a fully bisexual species. Similar same-sex sexual behaviours occur in both male and female macaques. Females are also thought to participate for pleasure as VPA vulvar, perineal, and anal stimulation is part of these interactions.
The stimulation can come from their own tails, mounting their partner, thrusting, contact between both VPAs, or a combination of these.
Male bottlenose dolphins have been observed working in pairs to follow or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive. The same pairs have also been observed engaging in intense sexual play with each other. Janet Mann, a professor of biology and psychology at Georgetown University, argues  that the common same-sex behaviour among male dolphin calves is about bond formation and benefits the species evolutionarily.
They cite studies that have shown the dolphins later in life are bisexual and the male bonds forged from homosexuality work for protection as well as locating females with which to reproduce. In , an English man was prosecuted for allegedly having sexual contact with a dolphin.
The female spotted hyena has a unique urinary-genital system , closely resembling the penis of the male, called a pseudo-penis. Dominance relationships with strong sexual elements are routinely observed between related females. They are notable for using visible sexual arousal as a sign of submission but not dominance in males as well as females females have a sizable erectile clitoris. Mammals mate by vaginal copulation. To achieve this, the male usually mounts the female from behind.
During mating, a "copulatory tie" occurs in mammals such as fossas ,  canids  and Japanese martens. The copulatory behavior of many mammalian species is affected by sperm competition.
Some females have concealed fertility, making it difficult for males to evaluate if a female is fertile. This is costly as ejaculation expends much energy. Invertebrates are often hermaphrodites. Some hermaphroditic land snails begin mating with an elaborate tactile courting ritual.
The two snails circle around each other for up to six hours, touching with their tentacles, and biting lips and the area of the genital pore, which shows some preliminary signs of the eversion of the penis. As the snails approach mating, hydraulic pressure builds up in the blood sinus surrounding an organ housing a sharpened dart.
The dart is made of calcium carbonate or chitin , and is called a love dart. Each snail manoeuvres to get its genital pore in the best position, close to the other snail's body. Then, when the body of one snail touches the other snail's genital pore, it triggers the firing of the love dart. The love darts are covered with a mucus that contains a hormone -like substance that facilitates the survival of the sperm.
Penis fencing is a mating behaviour engaged in by certain species of flatworm , such as Pseudobiceros bedfordi. Species which engage in the practice are hermaphroditic, possessing both eggs and sperm-producing testes. One organism inseminates the other. The sperm is absorbed through pores in the skin, causing fertilisation.
Corals can be both gonochoristic unisexual and hermaphroditic , each of which can reproduce sexually and asexually. Reproduction also allows corals to settle new areas. Corals predominantly reproduce sexually. The gametes fuse during fertilisation to form a microscopic larva called a planula , typically pink and elliptical in shape. This synchrony is essential so that male and female gametes can meet. Corals must rely on environmental cues, varying from species to species, to determine the proper time to release gametes into the water.
The cues involve lunar changes, sunset time, and possibly chemical signalling. Butterflies spend much time searching for mates. When the male spots a mate, he will fly closer and release pheromones. He then performs a special courtship dance to attract the female. If the female appreciates the dancing she may join him. Then they join their bodies together end to end at their abdomens. Here, the male passes the sperm to the female's egg-laying tube, which will soon be fertilised by the sperm.
Many animals make plugs of mucus to seal the female's orifice after mating. Normally such plugs are secreted by the male, to block subsequent partners. In spiders the female can assist the process. They use these to pick their sperm up from their genitals and insert it into the female's sexual orifice, rather than copulating directly.
On ten of these occasions the male's pedipalps then seemed to get stuck while he was transferring the sperm which is rarely the case in other species of spider , and he had great difficulty freeing himself.
In two of those ten instances, he was eaten as a result. Research into human evolution confirms that, in some cases, interspecies sexual activity may have been responsible for the evolution of new species speciation. Analysis of animal genes found evidence that after humans had diverged from other apes , interspecies mating nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool.
One possible explanation is that modern humans emerged from a hybrid of human and chimp populations. When close relatives mate, progeny may exhibit the detrimental effects of inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is predominantly caused by the homozygous expression of recessive deleterious alleles. Several examples of animal behaviour that reduce mating of close relatives and inbreeding depression are described next. Reproductively active female naked mole-rats tend to associate with unfamiliar males usually non-kin , whereas reproductively inactive females do not discriminate.
When mice inbreed with close relatives in their natural habitat, there is a significant detrimental effect on progeny survival. Thus there are fewer matings between mice sharing MUP haplotypes than would be expected if there were random mating. Meerkat females appear to be able to discriminate the odour of their kin from the odour of their non-kin.
When mating does occur between meerkat relatives, it often results in inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression was evident for a variety of traits: pup mass at emergence from the natal burrow, hind-foot length, growth until independence and juvenile survival.
The grey-sided vole Myodes rufocanus exhibits male-biased dispersal as a means of avoiding incestuous matings. In natural populations of the bird Parus major great tit , inbreeding is likely avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative.
Toads display breeding site fidelity , as do many amphibians. Individuals that return to natal ponds to breed will likely encounter siblings as potential mates. Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings rarely mate. These toads likely recognise and actively avoid close kins as mates. Advertisement vocalisations by males appear to serve as cues by which females recognise their kin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual behavior of non-human animals.
This article is about the sexual behavior of non-human animals. For human sexual behavior, see Human sexual activity and Human sexuality. For other uses, see Animal sex disambiguation. Main article: Monogamous pairing in animals. See also: Evolution of monogamy. Main article: Polygyny in animals.
Main article: Polyandry in nature. Main article: Polygynandry. Main article: Bateman's principle. Main article: Seasonal breeder. Main article: Koinophilia. Main article: Copulation zoology. See also: Cuckoldry in fish. See also: Sequential hermaphroditism. Main article: Sexual cannibalism. Play media. Main article: Sexual coercion. Main article: Non-reproductive sexual behaviour in animals. See also: Mating call.
Further information: Mammalian reproduction and Social monogamy in mammalian species. See also: Mating of gastropods. Main article: Humanzee. Main article: Inbreeding avoidance. Animals portal.
Advanced biology. Oxford University Press. General Studies Manual. Pearson Education India. Behavioural ecology of teleost fishes. Retrieved 26 August National Science Foundation. Animal Behaviour. Max Planck Research.
Archived from the original PDF on 14 May Retrieved 24 April Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics.
Black Ed. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Monogamy: Past and present. Reichard and C. Boesch Eds. The Myth of Monogamy. New York, NY: W. It's Not for the Birds of the Bees". The New York Times. Freeman and Co. Bibcode : PLoSO Mammal Review published January J Zool. Pietsch Bibcode : Natur. Retrieved 18 November The Teaching Company.
Retrieved 10 November Parental investment and sexual selection. Campbell Ed. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Accessed 14 March W Sexual conflict and partner manipulation in the banana slug, Ariolimax dolichophallus. Retrieved 13 February Animal Biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology. Retrieved 11 February That means that the animal is physically and mentally more ready for sexual activities at some times than at others.
But this does not mean that sexual activity will lead to injuries, fear or suffering, if it happens outside the rut period. Cornell University Press. Retrieved 27 September Anatomical Record. Archived from the original PDF on 19 March Nature Reviews Urology. Neuroscience, exploring the brain. Journal of Neuroendocrinology. Hormones and Behavior. The Lab Rat Chronicles.
New York: penguin group. March Science Watch. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Essential Animal Behavior. Behavioral Neuroscience.
Meisel, and B. Random House Publishing Group. Retrieved 28 May Applied Animal Behaviour Science. American Zoologist. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
University of Bristol. Retrieved 26 October Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Det er derfor rimeligt at antage, at der er en eller anden form for behag eller tilfredsstillelse forbundet med akten.
Journal of Theoretical Biology. The Blind Watchmaker. Longman, London. Published in Penguin Books , , and Chapter 8, Explosions and Spirals. Retrieved 19 February The physiology of reproduction.
Fish reproduction: Strategies and tactics. Academic Press. Warner Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Alonzo August Bell Environmental Biology of Fishes. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Biology Letters. Bibcode : Sci Retrieved on The Straight Dope.
Retrieved 5 March Scientific American. BBC News. Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 10 October Torstar Books. Retrieved 11 November Bibcode : NW Fish Biol. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Saunders Company. Retrieved 12 June The Independent.
How the experience of sexual reward connects sexual desire, preference, and performance". Archives of Sexual Behavior. Current Biology.
Archived from the original PDF on 28 January Retrieved on 22 December Artificial breeding of non-domestic animals: the proceedings of a symposium held at the Zoological Society of London on 7 and 8 September Academic Press for the Zoological Society of London.
Retrieved 9 February University of California Press. Kyoto University Press. Journal of Mammalogy. Hosken, David ed. Briffa, Mark ed. Martin's Press. Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 19 October Herpetology Notes.
Although this isn't an exact science, our pick is a has marsupial with a strenuous and deadly mating strategy. Animal Len Fisher. My vote animal go to the Has brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, a rat-sized marsupial whose males indulge annually in a fortnight-long sexual orgy with has many females as possible.
The fun for the males stops there, though, because they all die of exhaustion, leaving a population of females to give birth animal days sex. Sign up to receive our newsletter! Already have an account with us? Sign in to manage your newsletter preferences. Sex can unsubscribe at any has. For animal information about how to do this, and how Immediate Media Company Limited publisher of Science Focus holds animal personal information, please see our sex policy.
Want to be updated when sex is Science Focus news? Our best wishes animal a productive day. Sign in to manage your newsletter sex Sign in. Sign me up! The Human Body. Has affect our lives sex many ways has and it starts in the womb. Everyday science. A history of dangerous ideas Adam Pearson on the lasting effect of eugenics.
You may like. Head to head: Grizzly bear vs African lion. Do crows actually fly in a straight line? Which animal has the strongest jaws? Why do bats live in caves? Where do birds go when they die?
Dating profiles and free personals ads posted by single women and girls from cities including: Kiev, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnebrovsky, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, Kazan, Perm', Zaporizhzhya, Tambov, Lapu-Lapu City, Guangzhou, Tacloban City, Konakovo, Kalibo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Istanbul, Kharkiv, Brooklyn, Mira Loma,
Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, including within the same species. .. It is often assumed that animals do not have sex for pleasure, or alternatively that humans, pigs, bonobos (and perhaps dolphins and one or two more. There's an idea circulating that humans are the only animal to experience sexual pleasure; that we approach sex in a way that is distinct from.
Want to be updated when there is Science Focus news?
- Вы ищете знакомства с иностранцами?
- Хотите выйти замуж за рубеж?
- Наш международный сайт знакомств абсолютно бесплатно поможет вам!
На нашем сайте зарегистрированы тысячи мужчин из-за границы и, если вы ищете мужчину для серьёзных отношений, брака, дружбы или переписки, то вы обратились по адресу.
We currently have opportunities to help with the development of our dating site, may suit a student or someone looking for part-time work. View more information here.